Psych385 Reading Note Ch8&12 - Chapter 8...

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The emergence of emotions Development of emotions includes how biologically based expressions enable infant and parent to communicate and how such expressions take on the forms of culture and individuality. Emotions in the first year of life Tomkin’s discrete emotions – each emotion comes as an innate package with its own neural program. As child development proceeds, specific emotions are expressed in forms that are recognizable. Newborns show the facial expression of disgust in response to sour tastes. Two months old babies show expressions of happiness in their faces. Smiles are made during sleep but social smiles do not emerge until after the first month or two. Three months old babies smile in response to events that make adults smile. Smiling occurs when infants master skills. One function of infants’ smiles is to make adults interested and happy. Discrete emotions should only be inferred if a specific facial expression is made in the context of an appropriate elicitor. (Anger in response to frustration, having string-pulling did not result in music) Three kinds of frustration – showed anger but not sadness 1. Extinction – loss of the stimulation 2. Partial reinforcement – reduction in contingent stimulation 3. Noncontingency – loss of stimulus control Two criteria to show discrete emotions 1. Predicted expression should occur more often in response to the specific elicitor (Fear must occur in response to visual cliff and approach of the stranger) 2. Predicted expression must be displayed more often in its appropriate eliciting circumstances than in non-predicted eliciting circumstances (Fear must occur more in response to visual cliff than to vanishing objects or subbing the toy) Happiness met the criteria better than fear did. Dynamic systems Babies show partial expressions and inappropriate emotions, not occurring with expected elicitors. Camaras’s theory - Child’s emotional expression is incompatible with the eliciting circumstances. Infants’ negative emotions are only of undifferentiated distress at different levels of intensity. Most negative expressions of infants can be coded as distress-pain, as anger, or as blends of discrete expressions. Emotions develop as dynamic, self-organizing systems. Neurophysiological programs do not come genetically specified as ready-assembled packages. Such packages are constructed during early life from low-level genetically derived components, which are formed into distinct structures by interactions of babies with other people. The idea of self-organizing system is that certain kinds of interactions among parts of a system maintain their relationship and overall form, because the forces of internal coherence are stronger than those that might impinge on the system from outside. Future behavior is not fully predictable from knowing the system’s starting point.
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Psych385 Reading Note Ch8&12 - Chapter 8...

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