5. LA-models - Models of Language Acquisition Chapter 10...

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Models of Language Acquisition Chapter 10 (pp. 327-332) Dr. Morten H. Christiansen 1
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Previous Class: Language Acquisition (I) Lexical Development Underextension: Narrow meaning assignment. Overextension: Broad meaning assignment. Constraints on Lexical Meaning Assignment Whole object: New words label whole objects. Taxonomic: New words refer to categories of objects. Mutual exclusivity: Objects only have a single label. Syntactic bootstrapping: Inferring meaning from syntax. Syntactic Development 24-48 months: Rapid increase in MLU. Nativist Approaches: Semantic bootstrapping: Semantic context ! syntactic categories. Parameter setting: Setting parameter in a Universal Grammar. 2
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An Example: Do Infants Learn Rules? Marcus et al. (1999) Preferential head turn experiment. Subjects: 7 month olds infants. 8 infants in AAB cond. 8 infants in ABB cond. Test: 6 consistent items 6 inconsistent items Connectionist simulation experiment. “Subjects”: Nets trained to segment speech. 8 networks in AAB cond. 8 networks in ABB cond. Test: 6 consistent items 6 inconsistent items 3
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Do Infants Learn Rules? The Results Christiansen & Curtin (1999) 0 10 20 30 40 50 Segmentation Performance Consistent Inconsistent Yes - algebraic-like rules. No - instead they acquire statistical regularities. 0 2 4 6 8 10 Listening Time Consistent Inconsistent Marcus et al. (1999) 4
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English Past Tense U-shaped Learning : Early Correct Stage: Few verbs used, mostly high- frequency irregular verbs, mostly correct usage come irregular ! came - walk regular + - ed ! walked ). Overgeneralization Stage: Large number of verbs, many regular verbs, overgeneralization of irregular verbs come irregular + -ed ! comed - walk regular + -ed ! walked . Late (Adult) Correct Stage: Correct performance on
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course PSYCH 2150 taught by Professor Christiansen, m during the Spring '09 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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5. LA-models - Models of Language Acquisition Chapter 10...

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