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Unformatted text preview: Introduction Introduction to Sociology
Lecture 2: Population Growth
Monday, February 1 Early Early macrosociological concerns
• • • • • Population growth – resource scarcity, the role of subsistence technology, population composition technology population composition Specialization and rationalization – the division of labor, consequences for social solidarity, the emergence of order and hierarchy Capitalism and inequality – the development of capitalism, problems that come with it, the basis of social conflict Urbanization, segregation – the movement of people from rural to urban areas, and the patterning of residence by social characteristics Social stratification – the unequal distribution of resources across social groups Malthusian Malthusian theory
An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
• Main concern: resource scarcity resource • Carrying capacity: the number of individuals in a given place that can be supported by its natural resource limits (i.e., without degrading the environment) • The problem: Whereas population growth occurs at a Whereas geometric rate, food production increases arithmetically Malthusian Malthusian model of population growth Catastrophe
Population Size Carrying capacity TIME Labor Labor surplus surplus Labor Labor wages wages decline Employers Employers hire hire more workers Increased Increased food food supply Food Food prices prices decline Population growth Food scarcity Food Food prices prices increase Laborer Laborer poverty, poverty, starvation Decline in Decline in reproduction reproduction Population Population stagnation stagnation Social inequality Population control Mechanisms Mechanisms of population control
“Premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.”
“Positive” checks • Famine • Natural disaster • Disease • War • Infanticide • Murder Preventative checks • Abstinence • Contraception 7000 7000 WORLD POPULATION (MILLIONS) IONS) 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 Me Malthus Malthus YEAR Criticisms Criticisms of Malthus
• Implies that social inequality has long-term benefits for society • Ignores the role of social and subsistence technology in improving society’s ability to produce and distribute food
Population growth prompts sociocultural evolution Huntergatherer Horticultural Agrarian Industrial Postindustrial • Overstates the disparity between rate of population growth and rate of resource production The The demographic transition
30 DEATHS per 1,000 people, per year BIRTHS per 1,000 people, per year BIRTHS per 1,000 people, per year S S r r 25 20 15 15 10 Mortality rate Fertility Fertilit rate 40 30 20 20 10 5 PHASE I 0 PHASE II PHASE III PHASE IV
0 Time Why Why the fertility decline?
• Parents’ fertility decisions are calibrated to mortality rates • Kids are expensive in advanced societies • Parenthood delayed for education Parenthood delayed for education • Contraceptive technology A. United States B. B. Ethiopia C. Italy D. India ...
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