building sentences 1025

building sentences 1025 - Syntax II: Building Sentences...

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Syntax II: Building Sentences Ayako Moewaki Ling 100 Guest Lecture October 25, 2010
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Key Concepts • Representing sentence structure: – Labeled brackets – Tree diagrams • Phrase structure rules (PSRs) • Lexical rules • Structural ambiguity • Embedded Clauses and Recursion • Deep and surface structure • Movement rules • Cross-linguistic variation
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What is Syntax? What do we know when we ‘know’ a language: why study syntax? • Syntax is generative – Generate or produce all and only the possible sentences in language • Syntax is productive – infinite (or infinitely long) new messages, but not all the possible logical combinations of words.
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Representing sentence structure I: Bracketed sentence [ s [ NP [ Art The][ N dog] ] [ VP [ V chased] [ NP [ Art the][ N cat] ]] ] . • N = dog, cat • Art = the • NP = the dog, the cat • V = chased • VP = chased the cat
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Representing sentence structure I: Bracketed sentence [ S [ NP [ Art The][ N dog] ] [ VP [ V chased] [ NP [ Art the][ N cat] ]] ] . • Step 1: Label and bracket individual words. • Step 2: Label and bracket each phrase (NPs and VP) . • Step 3: Label and bracket S .
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Phrase structure rules • Syntax is generative – The hierarchy represented by bracket and tree structures is constrained by rules • Phrase Structure rules – Languages-specific rules stating the type and order of constituents a phrase can consist of
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Phrase structure rules: VP VP V run V NP chased the cat V PP ate with a spoon V NP PP hit a boy on the head • NP is optional • PP is optional VP V ( NP ) ( PP )
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Phrase structure rules: PP PP P NP on the head * P *Holly hit a boy [ PP on ] • NP is not optional PP Prep NP
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course ARTS 100 taught by Professor Susan during the Spring '10 term at Wooster.

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building sentences 1025 - Syntax II: Building Sentences...

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