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building sentences 1025

building sentences 1025 - Syntax II Building Sentences...

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Syntax II: Building Sentences Ayako Moewaki Ling 100 Guest Lecture October 25, 2010
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Key Concepts Representing sentence structure: – Labeled brackets – Tree diagrams Phrase structure rules (PSRs) Lexical rules Structural ambiguity Embedded Clauses and Recursion Deep and surface structure Movement rules Cross-linguistic variation
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What is Syntax? What do we know when we ‘know’ a language: why study syntax? Syntax is generative – Generate or produce all and only the possible sentences in language Syntax is productive – infinite (or infinitely long) new messages, but not all the possible logical combinations of words.
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Representing sentence structure I: Bracketed sentence [ s [ NP [ Art The][ N dog] ] [ VP [ V chased] [ NP [ Art the][ N cat] ]] ] . N = dog, cat Art = the NP = the dog, the cat V = chased VP = chased the cat
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Representing sentence structure I: Bracketed sentence [ S [ NP [ Art The][ N dog] ] [ VP [ V chased] [ NP [ Art the][ N cat] ]] ] . Step 1: Label and bracket individual words. Step 2: Label and bracket each phrase (NPs and VP) . Step 3: Label and bracket S .
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Phrase structure rules Syntax is generative – The hierarchy represented by bracket and tree structures is constrained by rules Phrase Structure rules – Languages-specific rules stating the type and order of constituents a phrase can consist of
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Phrase structure rules: VP VP V run V NP chased the cat V PP ate with a spoon V NP PP hit a boy on the head NP is optional PP is optional VP V ( NP ) ( PP )
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Phrase structure rules: PP PP P NP on the head * P *Holly hit a boy [ PP on ] NP is not optional PP Prep NP
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