ling920 - Introduction to Language and Linguistics...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction to Language and Linguistics Producing Speech 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 1 Lots of ways to study speech sounds • • • • • Articulatory Phonetics: Articulatory Phonetics: – How speech is produced. Acoustic Phonetics: – Physical properties of the sounds produced. Auditory Phonetics: – How the ear picks up and alters speech sounds. Perceptual Phonetics: – How the brain processes speech sounds. Practical Phonetics: – How to produce, hear and transcribe sounds. • Today is mostly about articulatory & practical phonetics. Today articulatory phonetics. 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 2 The vocal tract Source: Lieberman and Blumstein, Speech Physiology, Speech Perception and Acoustic Phonetics (1988). 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 3 Vocal tract landmarks epiglottis (from Yule) 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 4 Getting air moving • Pulmonic: using the lungs – egressive: most sounds in most languages • Glottalic: using the glottis – egressive: ejectives – ingressive: implosives • Velaric: using the tongue – ingressive: ʻclicksʼ 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 5 Getting air moving • Ejectives: – http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/Vowelsa ndConsonants/course/chapter6/lakhota/lakhota.html • Clicks: – http://hctv.humnet.ucla.edu/departments/linguistics/VowelsandCon sonants/course/chapter6/xhosa/xhosa.html 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 6 Discreteness of speech sounds: Vowels and Consonants • What does the vocal tract do during speech production? • Partial answer: the vocal tract opens and closes repeatedly through time. • Sound is transmitted better when the tract is open. • This two-state system provides the basis for distinguishing vowels and consonants, which alternately transmit and obstruct sound production. 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 7 Practical phonetics: Transcribing speech • The best-known system: – The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) • IPA has been under development since 1888. • The system represents each sound of human speech with a single symbol. • Phonetic symbols are often in square brackets [ ]. 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 8 Describing Consonants: The IPA chart Languages tend to organize sounds articulatorily • “Natural classes” of place and manner of articulation (Youʼll learn more about natural classes in the next chapter) place * manner *V means “voice” (from Yule) Q: How else could languages (people!) organize sounds? 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 9 nasal cavity palate alveolar ridge oral cavity velum uv ul a lip tongue pharynx jaw epiglottis 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 larynx 10 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 11 Tongue tip contacts teeth, making a complete closure. Air pressure builds up behind the constriction until it is released STOP CONSONANT e.g., dental stops [ t̪ d̪ ] 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 12 tongue body forms closure against palate/ velum STOP CONSONANT e.g., velar stops [ k g ] 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 13 narrow constriction between tongue tip and tooth, causing air passing through it to become audibly turbulent FRICATIVE CONSONANT e.g., dental fricatives [ θ ð ] 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 14 nasal cavity: CLOSED OFF velum uv ul a Velum raised → ORAL sounds, e.g. oral vowels [ɑ ʌ ɔ i…] liquids/glides [r l j w…] oral stops [p t k b d g…] fricatives [s z f v θ ð…] 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 15 nasal cavity: OPEN velum ula uv Velum lowered → NASAL sounds, e.g. nasal stops [m n ŋ ɲ…] nasal vowels [ã õ ẽ…] nasal voice quality 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 16 Describing Vowels • The placement of the body of the tongue: – Vertical: high – mid – low – Horizontal: front – central – back • The shape of the lips: – Rounded – Unrounded • The lowering of the velum: Nasal vowels • The degree of the vocal tract constriction: – Tense – Lax 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 17 Tongue body high and close to palate VOWEL: high front vowel [i] Ling 100, 2010w, T1 18 20 September 2010 Jaw low, tongue low in mouth and pulled back towards pharynx VOWEL: low back vowel [ɑ] Ling 100, 2010w, T1 19 20 September 2010 Jaw high, tongue raised towards velum, lips protruded VOWEL: high back rounded vowel [u] Ling 100, 2010w, T1 20 20 September 2010 Articulation-based transcription of vowels (from Yule) 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 21 Articulation-based chart of ALL IPA consonants 20 September 2010 Ling 100, 2010w, T1 22 ...
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