phnology1004 - Phonology The study of sound patterns...

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Unformatted text preview: Phonology The study of sound patterns Analía Gutiérrez LING 100 guest lecture October 4, 2010 1 Phonetics vs. Phonology •  Both subfields deal with speech sounds Phonetics deals with: the physical (acoustic) properties of speech sounds, their production and perception Phonology deals with: the abstract (mental) aspect of the sound in language -  the sound systems of languages (as SYSTEMS) -  the patterning of speech sounds within a language -  modelling speakers’ knowledge of these patterns 2 Phonological knowledge •  When you know a language, what do you know (unconsciously) about its sound patterns? (1) What are the basic sound categories (=phonemes) that the language makes use of? tar [tʰɑɹ] / t / star [stɑɹ] eighth [ejt̪θ] writer [ɹaɪɾəɹ]~[ɹaɪtəɹ] 3 English Phonological Inventory Consonants 4 5 Phonemes •  Meaning-distinguishing sounds in a given language •  They function contrastively: they serve to distinguish words within the (mental) lexicon Minimal pairs: two words with distinct meanings that differ by only one sound (phoneme) in the same position in each word: (1) sing vs. thing [sɪŋ] vs. [θɪŋ] (2) pig vs. pick [pɪɡ] vs. [pɪk] (3) pick vs. peak [pɪk] vs. [pik] /s/ ≠ /θ/ /ɡ/ ≠ /k/ /ɪ/ ≠ /i/ ‣ proof that the sounds in question are distinct phonemes 6 Phonemes •  Minimal sets (3) big [bɪɡ] /b/ pig [pɪɡ] /p/ rig [ɹɪɡ] /ɹ/ fig [fɪɡ] /f/ dig [dɪɡ] /d/ wig [wɪɡ] /w/ 7 Phonemes Minimal sets (Cont.) (4) beet [bit] /i/ bate [bejt] /ej/ bit [bɪt] /ɪ/ bet [bɛt] /ɛ/ bat [bæt] /æ/ 8 Phonemes and allophones •  Sound differences can also be non-contrastive: “variants” or “different versions” with respect to how a given phoneme is realized (pronounced) allophones (of a phoneme) •  Representation: phonemes enclosed in slashes / /, allophones in square brackets [ ] 9 Phonemes and allophones •  You cannot pronounce a phoneme, you can only pronounce one of its allophones •  Phonemes are mental entities and phones are physical events 10 Phonemes and allophones English phoneme /t/ has different allophones: [tʰ] (aspirated) tar [tʰɑɹ] [t] (unaspirated) star [stɑɹ] [ɾ] (-ap) writter [ɹaɪɾəɹ]~[ɹaɪtəɹ] [t̪] (dental) eighth [ejt̪θ] 11 Phonemes and allophones /l/ [l] [ɫ] let [lɛt] ill [ɪɫ] linguist [lɪnɡwɪst] haul [hɔɫ] excellent [ɛksəlɪnt] silk [sɪɫk] 12 Phonemes and allophones •  What are the distributions of the allophones? English [tʰ] vs. [t] /t/ [tʰ] syllable-initially [t] elsewhere ‣ complementary distribution: each allophone appears in different environments. In the same context you can never find both. •  English has other allophones for /t/: [ɾ] and [t̪] 13 Phonemes and allophones •  Interestingly, the aspiration rule applies to the other members of the voiceless stops: /p/ and /k/: pin kill [pʰɪn] [kʰɪɫ] spin [spɪn] skill [skɪɫ] ‣ Generalization: In English, voiceless aspirated stops appear syllable-initially and voiceless unaspirated stops appear everywhere else. 14 Phonemes and allophones •  What about [l] and [ɫ]? What is their distribution? /l/ [l] [ɫ] let [lɛt] ill [ɪɫ] linguist [lɪnɡwɪst] haul [hɔɫ] excellent [ɛksəlɪnt] silk [sɪɫk] 15 Phonemes and allophones •  Importantly, if I mispronounce an allophone of a phoneme, i.e. I use an unaspirated stop rather than an aspirated stop syllable-initially, I may sound ‘weird’ but I still should be understood… I want a tea [ti] (instead of [tʰi]) •  However, if I switch phonemes, I convey two different things: I want a sheep [ʃip] ≠ ship [ʃɪp] 16 Phonemes and allophones 17 Phonemes and allophones Khmer [pɔŋ] to wish vs. [pʰɔŋ] also Korean [pul] fire vs. [pʰul] grass /p / ≠ /pʰ/ [p ] [pʰ] 18 Phonemes as mental categories •  Phonemes can be seen as categories (sets) of speech sounds •  Language users treat all the sounds within a category (allophones of a phoneme) as being “the same” ‣ native speakers of English have difficulty distinguishing a [t] from a [ ] but have clear intuitions about distinguishing [d] ‘day’ from [ð] ‘they’ /d/≠ /ð/ 19 Phonemes as mental categories This categorization is learned in very early childhood: as infants, we learn to ignore nonphonemic differences… Phonological knowledge ‣ relevant for studying the role of transfer in second language acquisition 20 Phonemes as mental categories 21 Phonemes as mental categories 22 Phonemes vs. Allophones Are the two sounds allophones of the same phoneme or two phonemes? Do they occur in minimal pairs? NO: Do they occur in the exact same environment ( if they do, is there a difference in meaning)? NO: Allophones of 1 phoneme YES: Allophones of 2 different phonemes In what environment does each allophone occur? State the environments that condition each allophone 23 Give an example of a minimal pair to illustrate Phonological knowledge (2) What kinds of sound sequences count as possible (vs. impossible) in the language? (=phonotactics) speak /storm/scream✓ smart/snow/slow ✓ msart /nsow /lsow ✗ 24 Phonological knowledge •  As native speakers, we have strong intuitions about “legal” vs. “illegal” sequences. ‣ Which of the following are possible (though not attested) English words? (1)  plink (2)  bzick (3)  tlick (4)  bdis (5)  frashz 25 Phonological sequences •  Again, the constraint of how many/what type of consonants can occur in a syllable is language specific 26 Phonological knowledge •  How do you divide the following words in two syllables? central a) ce + ntral b) cen + tral c) cent +ral d) centr + al 27 Phonological knowledge Can you divide the following words in two syllables? a) speak b) straw c) borrow 28 Phonological knowledge (3) How do the phonemes of the language change depending on the context in which they occur? (= phonological processes/rules) pill vs. spill till vs. still kill vs. skill •  Aspiration Rule in English: Aspiration occurs on all voiceless stops occurring as the first sound in a stressed syllable. pill [pʰɪl] spill [spɪl] 29 Phonological processes English plural formation ‣ Three phonetic variants: [-z] pen-s, sea-s, file-s, dog-s, groove-s [-s] cat-s, cup-s, plant-s, bike-s [-ɪz] bus-es, buzz-es, dish-es, couch-es, judg-es •  It depends on what the preceding consonant is 30 31 Phonological processes English plural formation •  [ ­ɪz] after any of /s, z, ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ/ (sibilant sounds) •  [ ­s] after any of /p, t, k, f, θ/ (voiceless sounds that are not sibilant) •  otherwise, the plural ending is consistently [-z] ‣ Phonemic (underlying) representation = / ­z/ /dɑg+z/ dogs, /kæt+z/ cats, /dɪʃ+z/ dishes [dɑgz] [kæts] [dɪʃɪz] (surface representation) 32 Exercise •  Consider the distribution of [ɾ] and [l] in Korean: [ɾupi] ruby [kiɾi] road [saɾam] person [iɾɯmi] name [ɾatio] radio [mul] water [pal] big [s% ul] Seul [ilkop] seven [ipalsa] barber -Are [ɾ] and [l] allophones of one or two phonemes? 33 ...
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