Semantics - Semantics Ling 100 guest lecture Lisa...

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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 1 Semantics Ling 100 guest lecture Lisa Matthewson
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 2 Goal for today ʼ s class Understand what a native speaker ʼ s knowledge of meaning involves. Knowledge of: word meaning truth conditions how structure inFuences meaning meaning relations between sentences
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 3 What do you know about meaning, when you know a language?
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 4 1. You know what the words mean What does this sentence mean? (1) The vapy koops dasaked the citar molently. (Fries 1952: 111) You know the parts of speech of the words, but not their meaning. So you don ʼ t understand the sentence.
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 5 Knowing what words means includes: Knowing relations between words. Synonymy : identical or similar meanings. almost/nearly, big/large, quickly/fast, … Antonymy : opposite meanings. hot/cold, big/small, true/false, … Hyponymy : one meaning included in another. dog/animal, poodle/dog, ant/insect, …
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 6 First clicker question Which of the following statements is NOT CORRECT? A. Student is a hyponym of person . B. Cup is a hyponym of saucer. C. Baby is a synonym of infant. D. Beautiful is an antonym of ugly.
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 7 Something interesting about alive vs. dead In the textbook (p. 118), Yule says that the negative of one member of a non-gradable antonym pair implies the other member. For example, (1) means (2). (1) My great-grandparents are n ʼ t alive. (2) My great-grandparents are dead.
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 8 But what about this pair? (1) This table isn ʼ t alive. (2) This table is dead. Alive and dead are not quite opposites!
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27 Oct. 2010 Ling 100, 2010W T1 9 The prototype theory of word meaning Prototype theory is a psychological theory of what a concept is. According to prototype theory, a concept consists of
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Semantics - Semantics Ling 100 guest lecture Lisa...

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