chapter2tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2 MATTER ATOMS John...

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 2
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MATTER ATOMS MOLECULES ELEMENTS John Dalton matter is composed of ‘building blocks’
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Dalton’s postulates 1. Elements are composed of small particles called atoms; atoms of an element are identical with same properties (mass) 2. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element; in a compound, the ratio of the number of atoms is an integer or fraction LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS 3. A chemical reaction involves separation and combination of atoms; atoms are neither created nor destroyed an atom is the basic, undividable unit of any element
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1. Law of definite proportions 2. Law of conservation of mass in a chemical reaction no gain or loss of mass is observed unit of mass is g (gram) or kilogram (kg) each atom has a constant mass atomic mass – atomic weight
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Structure of an Atom subatomic particles electrons protons neutrons
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proton,p 1.67262 × 10 kg +1.6022 × 10 -19 C +1 electron,e 9.10939 × 10 kg - 1.6022 × 10 -19 C - 1 m(p) / m(e) ≈ 1836 the atom’s positive charge is located in a small, dense central core ‘nucleus’ protons are a constituent of the nucleus
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