chapter4tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 2...

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Unformatted text preview: CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 2 HgO (s) 2Hg (l) + O 2(g) aq 1. properties of aqueous solutions 2. reactions in aqueous solutions a) precipitation reactions b) acid-base reactions (proton transfer) c) redox reactions (electron transfer) 1.PROPERTIES OF AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solvent solute substance in a large amount substance in a small amount N 2 gas phase O 2 (air) Ag solid phase Au (alloys) H 2 O liquid phase NaCl (sea water) EXP1 iodine in ethyl alcohol (C 2 H 5 OH) EXP2 table salt in water (H 2 O) does not conduct electricity (molecular solid) I 2 does conduct electricity (ionic solid) Na + Cl- AQUEOUS SOLUTION solutes solute water (H 2 O) electrolytes non-electrolytes solution conducts electricity solution does not conduct electricity EXP3 electrolytes non-electrolytes solution conducts electricity solution does not conduct electricity non-electrolyte weak electrolyte strong electrolyte methanol sugar ethanol water dark bright ionic compounds (NaCl, KF) NaOH HCl H 2 SO 4 CH 3 COOH HCOOH HF medium EXP5 SOLUTION concentration SOLUTION percentage concentration % = g [solute] / g solvent X 100 12 g of sodium chloride are solved in 150 g of water. Calculate the percentage concentration 8 % solubility of a solute number of grams of solute that can dissolve in 100 grams of solvent at a given temperature SOLUTION 36.0 g NaCl can be dissolve in 100 g of water at 293 K GAS PHASE SOLUTION Saturn solvent H 2 /He solute CH 4 , PH 3 LIQUID SOLUTION Europa solvent SOLID SOLUTION Triton solvent N 2 solute CH 4 methanol sugar ethanol water ionic compounds (NaCl, KF) NaOH HCl H 2 SO 4 CH 3 COOH HCOOH HF ELECTROLYTES migrating negative and positive charges Kohlrausch NaCl DISSOCIATION breaking apart NaCl (s) Na (aq) + Cl (aq) strong electrolytes are fully dissociated EXP5 polyatomic ions do NOT dissociate O H H - + + SOLVATION cations anions SOLVATION non-electrolyte CH 3 COOH (aq) H + (aq) + CH 3 COO- (aq) weak electrolytes are not fully dissociated reversible reaction (chemical equilibrium) NaCl (s) Na (aq) + Cl (aq) strong electrolytes are fully dissociated CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1.properties of aqueous solutions 2. reactions in aqueous solutions a) precipitation reactions b) acid-base reactions (proton transfer) c) redox reactions (electron transfer) 2.1. PRECIPITATION REACTIONS solution 1 solution 2 solution 1 + solution 2 2.1. PRECIPITATION REACTIONS formation of an insoluble product (precipitate) NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) EXP 6 in soluble compounds 1.M + compounds (M = H, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NH 4 ) 2. A- compounds (A = NO 3 , HCO 3 , ClO 3 , Cl, Br, I) NaCl(aq) + AgNO 3 (aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) balanced molecular equation (table to determine which compound precipitates) balanced ionic equation 1. NaCl(s) Na + (aq) + Cl- (aq) 2. AgNO 3 (s) Ag + (aq) + NO 3- (aq) spectator ions Ba(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + Na 3 PO 4 (aq) 1. which compound falls out? which compound falls out?...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Casaschi,a during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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chapter4tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 4 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 2...

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