chapter6tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 6 Energy an Chemical...

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 6
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Energy an Chemical Change 1.Forms of Energy 2.SI Unit of Energy 3.Energy in Atoms and Molecules 4.Thermodynamics 5.Calculation of Heat and Energy Changes 6.Measuring Heat and Energy Changes
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1. Forms of Energy 1. Kinetic energy energy of a moving microscopic or macroscopic object E = ½ m v 2 2. Radiant energy energy in form of photons (‘light’) (solar energy) E = h ν (h = Planck’s constant) (Chapter 7) 3. Potential energy energy by changing object’s position in height E = m g h (h = height)
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4. Thermal Energy energy associated with random motion of atoms and molecules E kin = ½ M v 2 = 3/2 R T (Chapter 5) M = m × N a 5. Chemical Energy energy stored in chemical bonds of substances LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY THE TOTAL ENERGY OF THE UNIVERSE IS CONSTANT EXP1
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1 Joule = 1 J 1 J = 1 Nm = 1 kg m 2 s -2 E kin = ½ × m × v 2 1 cal = 4.184 J macroscopic versus microscopic 1 J vs. 1 kJ mol -1 2. SI Unit of Energy
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Atoms – Kinetic and Thermal Energy E kin = ½ M v 2 = 3/2 R T 3. Energy in Atoms and Molecules gases are constantly in motion and hold a kinetic energy
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2 ) molecules have different ‘internal’ (vibrational) energy when bond distances are changed EXP2 different bonds have different bond strength (stabilities) (H 2 vs. N 2 )
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THERMO DYNAMICS HEAT CHANGE study of the energy associated with change 4. Thermodynamics reactants products (different energies)
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THERMOCHEMISTRY study of the energy associated with chemical change 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2 H 2 O(l) + energy Hindenburg 1937 Challenger 1986
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Surrounding Surrounding heat heat System ENDOTHERMIC ENDOTHERMIC heat heat Surrounding Surrounding System EXOTHERMIC 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) → 2 H 2 O(l) 2 HgO(s) → O 2 (g) + 2 Hg(l) EXP3
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Energy 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 H 2 O(l) Exothermic (heat given off by system) NH 4 NO 3 (aq) Endothermic (heat absorbed by system) NH 4 NO 3 (s) + H 2 O (l)
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QUANTIFICATION Enthalpy of Reaction Enthalpy is the heat release at a constant pressure
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chapter6tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 6 Energy an Chemical...

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