Chapter7tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 7 1 Structure of an Atom subatomic particles electrons protons neutrons mass number 17e 17p Cl 18 neutrons

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 7
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1. Structure of an Atom subatomic particles electrons protons neutrons
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17p 18n 17e 35 17 Cl mass number atomic number 18 neutrons e - classical physics predicts that electron falls into nucleus Why are atoms stable?
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2. Waves
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Intensity distance, x . . direction of propagation λ wavelength [m] amplitude v = x/t t = x/v EXP1
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Intensity time, t . . direction of propagation period [s] T T 1 = ν Frequency [s -1 ] [1 Hz = 1 s -1 ] Hertz
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Frequency and Wavelength λν = c wavelength frequency speed of radiation meter (m) Hz or s -1 m s -1 LONG WAVELENGTH, LOW FREQUENCY
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light can be described as a wave
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James Maxwell POSTULATE visible light consist of electromagnetic waves speed of propagation (speed of light) c = 3 × 10 8 ms -1
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light has two components 1.electric field 2.magnetic field
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ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM λ ν INCREASING FREQUENCY & ENERGY EXP2
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Which color has the higher frequency? 1 = orange 2 = blue λν = c Wavelength λ (nanometers) VISIBLE SPECTRUM
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The wavelength of the yellow light from a lamp is 589 nm. What is the frequency of the radiation? λν = c 7 589 5.89 10 nm m λ - = = × 1 14 7 1 8 10 09 . 5 10 89 . 5 10 998 . 2 - - - × = × × = = s m ms c ν
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Li Na K different atoms emit distinct light EXP3 3. Postulates
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E h ν = Max Planck h is Planck’s constant h = 6.626 x 10 -34 J s
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energy can be emitted or absorbed only in discrete quantities (little packages) EXP4/5
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Emission Nebula
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E h ν = CLASSICAL any amount of energy can be emitted or absorbed NON-CLASSICAL energy can be emitted or absorbed only in discrete quantities (little packages) E n h ∆ = energy is not continuous QUANTUM smallest amount of energy which can be absorbed/ emitted
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Albert Einstein Electromagnetic radiation can be viewed as a stream of particle-like units called photons POSTULATE ν h E = 3. Properties of Photons
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E initial E final ABSORPTION OF A PHOTON E h ν ∆ = atoms and molecules absorb discrete photons ( light quanta ) EXP6
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