chapter10tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 10 PREDICTING THE...

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 10
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PREDICTING THE GEOMETRY OF MOLECULES 1. derive Lewis structure of the molecule 2. discriminate between bonding and non- bonding electron pairs O H H 3. VALENCE SHELL ELECTRON PAIR REPULSION
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V ALENCE S HELL E LECTRON P AIR R EPULSION 3. valence electron pairs stay as far apart as possible VSEPR 1. identify in a compound the central atom 2. electrons repel each other 4. non-bonding electrons repel more than bonding electrons
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central atom no non-bonding pairs non-bonding pairs
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Cl Be Cl BeCl 2 TWO ELECTRON PAIRS AROUND BERYLLIUM ATOM AB 2
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Be 180° 180° Be 90° 270° LINEAR ARRANGEMENT BEST Cl Be Cl IT PUTS ELECTRON PAIRS FURTHEST APART
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BF 3 F B F F THREE ELECTRON PAIRS AROUND THE BORON ATOM AB 3
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B 120° 120° 120° F B F F THREE ELECTRON PAIRS AROUND THE BORON ATOM TRIGONAL PLANAR ARRANGEMENT BEST
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F F F B THE SHAPE OF BF 3 IS TRIGONAL PLANAR. MOLECULAR SHAPE
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CH 4 H C H H H four electron pairs 90° C 90° 90° 90° expect square planar AB 4
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better arrangement for four electron pairs 109.5° C TETRAHEDRAL 4 electron pairs tetrahedral bigger than 90 ° in square planar put on the H-atoms
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109.5° C TETRAHEDRAL C H H H H shape of CH 4 is tetrahedral
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PF 5 FIVE ELECTRON PAIRS AROUND PHOSPHORUS P 5 electron pairs trigonal bipyramidal F P F F F F AB 5
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P P F F F F F Bond angle 90 0 120 0 shape of PF 5 is trigonal bipyramidal two of the F atoms different from the others
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F F F Bond angle 90 0 120 0 AXIAL EQUATORIAL
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F S F F F F F S six electron pairs around the sulfur atom 6 electron pairs SF 6 octahedral AB 6
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S S F F F F F F shape of SF 6 is octahedral 90 0
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central atom no non-bonding pairs non-bonding pairs
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SeO 2 O Se O AB 2 E AB 3
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Se VSEPR treats double bonds like a single bond O Se O THREE ELECTRON PAIRS AROUND SELENIUM ELECTRON PAIR GEOMETRY TRIGONAL PLANAR
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Se SeO 2 IS V-SHAPED (OR BENT) ADD OXYGENS Se O O THE MOLECULAR SHAPE IS THE POSITION OF THE ATOMS
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NH 3 H N H H electron pairs around the nitrogen atom AB 3 E AB 4
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NH 3 H N H H N PUT ON THE 3 H ATOMS N H H H NH 3 is trigonal pyramidal
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AB 2 E 2 AB 4 H O H four electron pairs around the oxygen atom O PUT ON THE 2 H-ATOMS O H H shape of H 2 O is V-shaped or bent
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F S F F F SF 4 AB 4 E AB 5 TRIGONAL BIPYRAMID S
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S F F F F S F F F F WHERE DOES LONE PAIR GO? OR lone pairs occupy the trigonal plane (the “equator”) to minimize the number of 90° repulsions
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SF 4 1 lone pair See-saw shaped ClF 3 2 lone pairs T-shaped S F F F F Cl F F F lone pairs occupy the trigonal plane (the “equator”) first to minimize the number of 90° repulsions AB 4 E 3 2 F F F Xe XeF 2 3 lone pairs Linear 2 3
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BrF 5 Br F F F F F Square pyramidal Br AB 5 E AB 6
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XeF 4 Xe F F F F Xe Xe F F F F : lone pairs MUST BE AT 180 0 Xe F F F F : AB 4 E 2 AB 6
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Summary of Molecular Shapes Total valence electron pairs Electron Pair Geometry Lone electron pairs Shape of Molecule 2 3 4 Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral 0 0 1 0 1 2 Linear Trigonal planar V-shaped Tetrahedral Trigonal pyramid V-shaped
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Casaschi,a during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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chapter10tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 10 PREDICTING THE...

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