chapter11tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 11 OUTLINE 1. Solids,...

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CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 11
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OUTLINE 1. Solids, Liquids, Gases – Molecular Comparison 2. Intermolecular Forces 3. Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams 4. Crystalline Solids
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1. SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, GASES expand/contract to fill container P V = n R T retain volume but not the shape retain volume and shape microscopic level molecular interactions
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OUTLINE 1. Solids, Liquids, Gases – Molecular Comparison 2. Intermolecular Forces 3. Phase Transitions and Phase Diagrams 4. Crystalline Solids
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intermolecular forces - attractions between molecules intramolecular forces - chemical bonds in molecule 2. INTERMOLECULAR FORCES intra forces STRONGER then inter forces
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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 1.dispersion forces (London, van der Waals) 2. dipole – dipole forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole forces strength increases
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LONDON FORCES weak attractions between non-polar atoms or molecules C H H H H
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LONDON FORCES
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LONDON FORCES induced dipole F ~ 1/d 6
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LONDON FORCES 1.Polarizability 2. Numbers of Atoms 3. Molecular Shape
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LONDON FORCES - Polarizibility measure how easily the electron cloud on a particle can be distorted increases as volume increases large forces takes more energy to disrupt forces reflected in boiling points
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LONDON FORCES - Polarizibility
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boiling point of hydrocarbons demonstrates this 327 H C 0.5 - H C 42.1 - H C 68.7 H C 88.6 - H C 36.1 H C 161.5 - CH C) ( atm 1 at BP formula C) ( atm 1 at BP formula 46 22 10 4 8 3 14 6 6 2 12 5 4 o o LONDON FORCES – Numbers of Atoms
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LONDON FORCES – Molecular Shape compact molecules have lower London forces than longer chain-like molecules H atoms in the more compact neopentane cannot interact as well with neighboring molecules as the H atoms in the chain n -pentane Alkane Boiling Points -20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 58 72 86 100 114 Molar Mass Temperature, ° n-alkanes iso-alkanes
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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 1.dispersion forces (London, van der Waals) 2. dipole – dipole forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole forces strength increases
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DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES permanent dipole (polar) F ~ 1/d 3 (about 1 % of covalent bond) F Br δ - δ +
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DIPOLE-DIPOLE FORCES permanent dipole (polar) F ~ 1/d 3 (about 1 % of covalent bond) F Br δ - δ +
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or Choose the Substance in Each Pair with the Highest Boiling Point CH 2 FCH 2 F CH 3 CHF 2 C C H H H H F F C C H H H F H F
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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 1.dispersion forces (London, van der Waals) 2. dipole – dipole forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole forces strength increases
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HYDROGEN BONDING (about 10 times stronger than other dipole – dipole interactions) very strong dipole-dipole attraction that occur when H is covalently bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom (F, O, or N) responsible for the expansion of water as it freezes
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HYDROGEN BONDING
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Choose the substance in each pair that is a liquid at room temperature (the other is a gas) CH 3 OH CH 3 CHF 2 CH 3 -O-CH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 NH 2
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INTERMOLECULAR FORCES 1.dispersion forces (London, van der Waals) 2. dipole – dipole forces 3. hydrogen bonding 4. ion-dipole forces strength increases
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ION –DIPOLE FORCES solvation
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course CHEM 161 taught by Professor Casaschi,a during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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chapter11tro - CHEMISTRY 161 Chapter 11 OUTLINE 1. Solids,...

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