TOC - 51629_00_TOC_RSE.qxd 2/2/06 4:55 PM Page iii Embedded...

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Embedded Microcomputer Systems Real Time Interfacing Second Edition Jonathan W. Valvano University of Texas at Austin Australia • Canada • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States 51629_00_TOC_RSE.qxd 2/2/06 4:55 PM Page iii
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1 Microcomputer-Based Systems 1 1.1 Computer Architecture 2 1.2 Embedded Computer Systems 6 1.3 The Design Process 10 1.3.1 Top-Down Design 10 1.3.2 Bottom-Up Design 14 1.4 Digital Logic and Open Collector 15 1.5 Digital Representation of Numbers 20 1.5.1 Fundamentals 20 1.5.2 8-Bit Numbers 22 1.5.3 Character Information 23 1.5.4 16-Bit Numbers 23 1.5.5 Fixed-Point Numbers 25 1.6 Common Architecture of the 6811 and the 6812 27 1.6.1 Registers 28 1.6.2 Terminology 29 1.6.3 Addressing Modes 30 1.6.4 Numbering Scheme Used by Freescale for the 6811 and the 6812 33 1.7 6811 Architecture 33 1.7.1 6811 Family 33 1.7.2 MC68HC711E9 35 1.7.3 MC68HC11D3 37 1.8 6812 Architecture 37 1.8.1 6812 Family 37 1.8.2 MC9C12C32 38 1.8.3 MC68HC812A4 41 1.8.4 MC68HC912B32 42 1.9 Parallel I/O Ports 43 1.9.1 Basic Concepts of Input and Output Ports 43 1.9.2 Introduction to I/O Programming and the Direction Register 46 1.9.3 Our First Design Problem 47 1.10 Choosing a Microcontroller 53 1.11 Exercises 54 1.12 Lab Assignments 56 2 Design of Software Systems 58 2.1 Quality Programming 58 2.1.1 Quantitative Performance Measurements 59 2.1.2 Qualitative Performance Measurements 59 2.2 Assembly Language Programming 60 2.2.1 Introduction 60 2.2.2 Assembly Language Syntax 62 2.2.3 Memory and Register Transfer Operations 64 2.2.4 Indexed Addressing Mode 66 2.2.5 Arithmetic Operations 69 2.2.6 Extended Precision Arithmetic Instructions on the 6812 74 2.2.7 Shift Operations 75 2.2.8 Logical Operations 77 2.2.9 Subroutines and the Stack 78 2.2.10 Branch Operations 82 2.2.11 Assembler Pseudo-ops 84 2.2.12 Memory Allocation 88 2.3 Self-Documenting Code 91 2.3.1 Comments 91 2.3.2 Naming Convention 94 2.4 Abstraction 95 2.4.1 Definitions 95 2.4.2 6811 Timer Details 96 2.4.3 6812 Timer Details 96 2.4.4 Time Delay Software Using the Built-in Timer 97 2.4.5 Moore Finite State Machine Traffic Light Controller 98 Contents xiii 51629_00_TOC_RSE.qxd 2/2/06 4:55 PM Page xiii
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2.4.6 Mealy Finite State Machine Robot Controller 101 2.5 Modular Software Development 104 2.5.1 Local Variables in Assembly Language 104 2.5.2 Modules 109 2.5.3 Dividing a Software Task into Modules 113 2.5.4 Rules for Developing Modular Software in Assembly Language 116 2.6 Layered Software Systems 118 2.7 Device Drivers 119 2.7.1 Basic Concept of Device Drivers 119 2.7.2 Design of a Serial Communications Interface (SCI) Device Driver 121 2.8 Object-Oriented Interfacing 122 2.8.1 Encapsulated Objects Using Standard C 122 2.8.2 Object-Oriented Interfacing Using C++ 123 2.8.3 Portability Using Standard C and C++ 124 2.9 Threads 126 2.9.1 Single-Threaded Execution 126 2.9.2 Multithreading and Reentrancy 126 2.10 Recursion 128 2.11 Debugging Strategies 128 2.11.1 Debugging Tools
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