Anth220- final review

Anth220- final review - Human Adaptation Adaptation the...

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Human Adaptation Adaptation- the biological or behavioral responses of organisms to the environment Adaptability- measured by an organisms capability to make positive anatomical or physiological changes after short or long term exposure to stressful environmental conditions Human Adaptation- human variation & its relationship to adaptation (relationship b/w phenotype & genotype) to abiotic, biotic and social constraints Human Variation & It’s Relationship to Adaptation- Phenotype (the expressed genotype) and genotype (the genetic “blueprint”). Alterations in concordance between the phenotype and the genotype suggest the action of intervening genetic or environmental factors. Functional genomics is one area of study devoted to studies of genotype-phenotype correspondence. Types of Adaptation Functional Adaptation- adaptation is a process, as opposed to a state or trait, whereby the organism has attained a beneficial adjustment to the environment. Can be temporary or permanent; acquired either through short-term or lifetime processes; and may involve physiological, structural, behavioral, or cultural changes aimed at improving the organism’s functional performance in the face of environmental stresses. Acclimation- Adaptive biological changes that occur in response to a single experimentally induced stress Acclimatization- Refers to the changes occurring within the lifetime of an organism that reduces the strain caused by stressful changes in the natural climate or by complex environmental stresses **ADAPTATION IS A PROCESS, NOT A STATE OR TRAIT** American Anthropological Associations Statement on Race Human populations are not unambiguous, clearly demarcated, biologically distinct groups. Evidence from the analysis of genetics (e.g., DNA) indicates that most physical variation, about 94%, lies within so-called racial groups. Conventional geographic "racial" groupings differ from one another only in about 6% of their genes. This means that there is greater variation within "racial" groups than between them. In neighboring populations there is much overlapping of genes and their phenotypic (physical) expressions. Throughout history whenever different groups have come into contact, they have interbred. The continued sharing of genetic materials has maintained all of humankind as a single species. From its inception, this modern concept of "race" was modeled after an ancient theorem of the Great Chain of Being, which posited natural categories on a hierarchy established by God or nature. Thus "race" was a mode of classification linked specifically to peoples in the colonial situation. It subsumed a growing ideology of inequality devised to rationalize European attitudes and treatment of the conquered and enslaved peoples. Proponents of slavery in particular during the 19th century used "race" to justify the retention of slavery.
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course ANTH 220 taught by Professor Leslie during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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Anth220- final review - Human Adaptation Adaptation the...

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