Anth220- midterm review

Anth220- midterm review - What is Anthropology? The word...

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What is Anthropology? - The word anthropology itself tells the basic story--from the Greek anthropos ("human") and logia ("study")--it is the study of humankind, from its beginnings millions of years ago to the present day. Anthropology's four main subfields : socio-cultural, biological, archaeology, and linguistic anthropology The 3 traditional divisions within biological anthropology include: Human Biology, Primatology, and Paleoanthropology Hominoid, Hominid, Hominin Suborder Hominoids- a primate superfamily Subfamily Homininae- non-human primates and humans Tribe Hominini- archaic and modern humans What makes biological anthropology a science? Hypothesis testing Theory development Deductive reasoning Experimentation and Fieldwork Systematic observations and data quantification Comparative studies Biological Taxonomy- the science of naming different living and extinct organisms. Anatomy- the science of structure of the body. Geology- the science of the ages of the earth. Genes, DNA and the Genetic Code Atom-> Molecule or Compound-> Organelle-> Cell-> Tissue-> Organ-> Organ System-> Organism DNA is the genetic code by which hereditary info is translated from genes (MtDNA, Y Chromosome, Nuclear) Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. Pepsin is a digestive protease released by the chief cells in the stomach that functions to degrade food proteins into peptides. Hemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of the blood in vertebrates and other animals A hormone is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. Insulin- is a polypeptide hormone that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. Adenine-Thymine; Guanine-Cystosine 3 nucleotides is referred to as a codon and each codon designates an amino acid Protein synthesis is the transcription and translation of specific parts of DNA to form proteins Genetic and protein codes are 2 dimensional and actual proteins are 3 dimensional MtDNA is located inside the mitochondrion and has a different evolutionary origin from nuclear DNA from bacteria. It recombines with copies of itself within the same mitochondrion. Y Chromosome is the sex-determining chromosome that is passed from father to son ONLY
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Nuclear DNA is located inside the nucleus of the cell and is passed on sexually from mother to father Genotype - refers to the genetic composition of an organism Phenotype - what is expressed- the result interactions between genes and the environment Gregor Mendel- discovered that biological inheritance was not an irreversible blending of parental traits Allele- one, two, or more alternate forms of a single gene The Principle of Allelic Segregation
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course ANTH 220 taught by Professor Leslie during the Fall '08 term at Maryland.

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Anth220- midterm review - What is Anthropology? The word...

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