Hlth130- final review

Hlth130- final review - Chapter 13 Do People Choose Their...

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Chapter 13 - Do People Choose Their Own Health? Public health professionals broke the “chains of infection” by removing etiologic agents (bacteria, viruses, parasites) from the environment (water, food) or by developing vaccines . Top 3 Causes of Death in US, 1900 % of All Deaths Pneumonia and influenza 11.8% Tuberculosis 11.3% Diarrhea, enteritis, ulceration of intestines 8.3% - Tobacco was found to be the leading actually cause of death in the US- it accounts for 30% of all cancer deaths and 21% of cardiovascular disease deaths. - Poor diet and physical inactivity are the second leading cause- they’re closely related with overeating and inactivity combining to lead to obesity. Dietary fat, inactive behavior and obesity are associated with heart disease, stroke, several forms of cancer, and diabetes. - Misuse of alcohol was the third leading cause- causing 35-40% of motor vehicle fatalities, as well as chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, home injuries, drowning, fire fatalities, job injuries, & 3-5% of cancer deaths. The nine actual causes of death identified account for approximately half of all deaths in the US . The other half includes genetic factors and other less clearly identifiable causes. Two approaches that the government has taken to promote healthy behavior: education and regulation. EDUCATION - informs the public about healthy and unhealthy behavior. The government has stressed the importance of eating less fat, less salt, more fruits and vegetables, and grains. FDA - (Food and Drug Administration)- set requirements for labeling prepared foods. Top 3 Causes of Death in US, 2000 % of All Deaths Diseases of heart 29.6% Malignant neoplasms (cancer) 23.0% Cerebrovascular diseases 7.0% ACTUAL Causes of Death in US, 2000 % of All Deaths Tobacco 18.1% Poor diet and physical inactivity 15.2% Alcohol consumption 3.5%
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Sex Education- highly controversial. Condoms are only partially effective in preventing HIV transmission. Some believe children should be taught that abstinence is the only way to protect yourself. REGULATION - people’s behaviors are regulated by the government passing and enforcing laws. CONCLUSION : As infectious diseases have become les predominant causes of death in the US, a major focus of public health programs has shifted to people’s behavior. An analysis conducted by a group of public health leaders has concluded that the top 3 actual causes of death are smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption. Other behavioral factors that are among the top nine causes of death are smoking, poor diet and physical inactivity and alcohol consumption. Other behavioral factors that are among the top nine causes of death are firearms, sexual behavior, motor vehicles and the illicit use of drugs. For public health to significantly reduce the death rates beyond what it can achieve in controlling infectious diseases, it must find ways to promote behavioral change.
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