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Unformatted text preview: 21:35 Part A Thesis: The Enlightenment was the golden era of new self-thinking and personal action. Intellectuals began to challenge ideas of the old monarchy rule, which paved way for others to start revolutions all over Europe. 1.The Enlightenment: (18 th century1700s) -Paris: the capital Ideals: World is knowable and governed by natural laws; Reason and scientific inquiry can reveal truths; Human beings can be improved through education; Voltaire: Deism; Diderot: Encyclopedia-Rousseau: The Social Contracthis moral vision of society, governments; Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws balance of powers, checks; Governments should rule by reason and law, not violence; Governments should rule with the consent of the people; economic progess depends on freeing arigculture and trade from restrictions (free trade)-no govt. regulations Define : The Enlightenment was a movement that transformed the way people thought of the individual, their own worth, and how the government can accommodate them. all major revolutions after the Enlightenment were for the causes above, either adopted, or rejected French Revolution causes: (1789) enlightenment inspired; peasants burdened by taxes (rising of the Third Estate); debt and the collapse of the monarchy (no more money!); recession and famine people were unhappy with the kings ability to provide and tend to his people; Oath of the Tennis Court: evoke notion equality; representatives of nation; The Great Fear, Summer 1789 peasants rise up against Lords Outcome French Revolution : the first successful revolution inspired by the Enlightenment; adopted Enlightenment ideals; National Assembly (middle class) take over government -- try to implement ideas of enlightenmentdual legislature, etc.; Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizens -- individual rights, politics, enlightenment, legitimate government [ The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptibly rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.-The Declaration of the Rights of Man ]; representation and separation of powers Russian Revolution : (1917) ideals of the Enlightenment in hard times -- Old Regime- Imperial Russia; bad conditions after WW1 (1914) huge gaps between rich and poor; war refugees, production and transport unreliable, inflation, food shortages anger; Bolsheviks take power: believe necessary for masses to be controlled by a strong revolutionary force. (tyranny?not enlightened, but for enlightened purposes); Social-Democrats not confine themselves exclusively to the economic struggle, but that they must not allow [investigating mismanagement of the economy] to become the predominant part of their activities. We must take up actively the political education of the working class and the development of its political consciousness (V.I. Lenin, 96). During : Terrorrule by forcenot enlightened. CHEKA- secret police; V.I. Lenin: Terrorrule by forcenot enlightened....
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course HIST 4 taught by Professor Rappaported during the Spring '10 term at UCSB.
- Spring '10
- All Quiet on the Western Front