Psychology Final Section Review

Psychology Final Section Review -...

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Psychology Final Section Review 02/12/2008 17:29:00 Thinking Attention o Change blindness: failure to detect changes in parts of scene (experiment shown in lecture:  someone walks between subject and a person giving directions. Person giving direction  changes, subject usually does not notice) o Attentional blink: during a brief time after perceiving something, it is difficult to attend to  something else (e.g. notice x’s, will notice the first one but the following ones harder to notice) Problem solving o Algorithm: mechanical, repetitive procedure for solving a problem or testing every hypothesis  (i.e. trying every possible solution to a problem) o Heuristic: shortcuts or strategies for simplifying a problem and generating a satisfactory guess;  guide our decisions but may lead to errors Representativeness heuristic: if an item resembles other items in a category, we  assume it’s also a member of that category Base-rate information: how common the category is  Ex.: if we see a young person on campus, we may assume they are also a  student Availability heuristic: strategy of assuming that how easily one can remember examples  of something kind of item indicates how common the item itself is Ex. If the news talks a lot about muggings in your area, you may be more wary  to go out at night alone Errors in problem solving o Framing effects: the way a question is posed influences the way you answer it Ex. Shooper prefer a steak advertised as 75% lean over that 25% fat o Overconfidence: people believe estimates are more accurate than they actually are Ex. How confident were you that you passed/failed the midterm? o Confirmation bias: paying attention only to info that confirms our ideas Ex. Gambler recalls sotires of winning to justify even though losing more common Development
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Experimental designs across development o Cross-sectional: compares groups of different ages all at the same time o Longitudinal: follows a single group of individuals as they develop o Cross-sequential: study two age groups, then study them again at a later date o *Cohort effects: groups of people born in different times or different places may differ  systematically, thus confounding research designed to study the effect of a different variable  (e.g. age) (differentiating us from grandparents ie. Taking different language in school) Piaget’s theory of development o Piaget’s basic insight was that thought processes differ qualitatively at different developmental  stages o
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Fridlund during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Psychology Final Section Review -...

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