Civil Rights and Liberties

Civil Rights and - :overview 20:18 Lasttime:federalism o Dual>cooperative>regulated>new o Priortothe1960s,.Ittookthe

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Civil Rights and Liberties: overview 20:18 Last time: federalism Development of federalism o Dual>cooperative>regulated>new o Prior to the 1960’s, rights weren’t guaranteed to the states. It took the  supreme courts to say, this now applied to states and federal government  (judicial review) Balance between state and national power Interpretation of the commerce clause The bill of rights First ten constitutional amendments Series of “thou shalt nots.” Substantive (e.g. establish religion, seizing private property) Procedural (e.g. presumed innocent) Basis of  civil rights o I: freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, petition o II: right to keep and bear arms III: quartering of soldiers forced by government o IV: security from unwarrantable search and seizure o V: right of accused in criminal proceedings o VI: right to speedy trial, witnesses, etc. o VII: trial by jury in civil cases o VIII: excessive bails, fines, and punishments are banned o IX: Reservation of rights of the people o X: powers reserved to states or people, if not designated in the  constitution Civil rights: The legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make on the government Don’t come up in the constitution until the 14 th  amendment (1868)
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Civil Liberties: nationalizing the bill of rights 20:18 Bill of rights Apply to national government First amendment: “ Congress  shall make no law….” Only amendment addressed exclusively to national government Dual citizenship established o Barron v. Baltimore (1833) City of balitmore dumps sand and gravel in water near barron’s wharf  destroying value.  Barron sues city under 5 th  amendment Supreme court: 5 th  amendment does not apply to state, only national  government Chief justice john marhsall: The firth amendment must be understood as restraining the power  of the general government, not as applicable to the states. o Definition: dual citizenship meant that the bill of rights did not apply to  decisions or procedures of state governments  o 14 th  amendment:  all persons born or naturalized in the united states and subject to the  jurisdiction therof, are citizens of the united states and of the sate  wherein they reside no state shall make or enforce any laws which shall abridge the  privileges or immunities of the united states; nor shall any state deprive 
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course PO PO211 taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '09 term at BU.

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Civil Rights and - :overview 20:18 Lasttime:federalism o Dual>cooperative>regulated>new o Priortothe1960s,.Ittookthe

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