final study guide

final study guide - MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS Whats the...

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MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS What’s the evidence for parental care in hadrosaurs? In Psittacosaurs? What about evidence that all dinosaurs exhibited parental care? --Hardosaurs & psittacosaurs = nest fossils; crocodiles & birds (closest relatives & only living dinos) care for their young (parsimony) What are examples of convergent evolution between ceratopsians and ornithopods? --dental batteries, larger size, extensive head ornament Give two lines of evidence that Margin-heads were social animals. -- 1) sexual dimorphism = sexual display & selection (domeheads & frill) 2) domeheads = head butting/pushing = competition for mates 3) parental care, nest fossils w/ hatchlings & parents 4) groups of fossils found in bone beds Why did pachycephalosaurs have such thick skulls? --head butting had thick skulls and strong neck muscles, possibly butted each other’s flanks, “head-pushed,” or used for sexual display (sexual dimorphism) Why do scientists now think that sauropods did not hold their necks up vertically? --too difficult to pump blood from heart so far away, heart would have had to be huge What are the adaptations that sauropods evolved to deal with their really long necks? --neck vertebrae w/ holes (lighter), tiny head, v-shaped notch wear ligaments on vertebrae run to support neck (like suspension cables holding bridge) List two differences that help distinguish diplodocids, camarasaurs, and brachiosaurs. --dip: nostrils = tiny & on top of head, forelimbs = shorter; cam: bigger nostrils, limbs all same length; brach: largest nostrils, forelimbs = longer Which of the following dinosaur clades includes the largest creatures ever to walk on Earth: theropods, ceratopsians, sauropods , stegosaurs, ankylosaurs? There are estimates that the dinosaur Amphicoelus may have been as much as 60 m long and 150 tons. Some scientists question this. Why? What evidence is this based on? --based on fragment of one vertebrae, scaling problems impossible? One idea for the large size of sauropods relates to their diet. What’s the explanation?
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final study guide - MISCELLANEOUS QUESTIONS Whats the...

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