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dino midterm - 1 Midterm Review Sheet for Geology...

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1 Midterm Review Sheet for Geology 7 (Lectures ONLY; Qs from Prelabs 1-3 will also be on the test) General points: Make sure you know how all the taxa (see below) are related to each other (drawing one big cladogram will help). Know how to graph novelties onto a cladogram, and make sure you understand how to read cladograms. TAXA Be able to draw a cladogram indicating their relationships (note – some groups are nested within others). What groups do they contain, and what groups are they part of? Are they monophyletic or paraphyletic? What novelties distinguish them? (see list of novelties below) Animals Invertebrates Vertebrates Agnatha Lamprey Hagfish Ostracoderms Gnathostomes Chondrichthyes (Sharks & Rays) Osteichthyes (Bony fish) Actinopterygii (Ray-finned) Sarcopterygii (Fleshy-limbed) Lungfish & Coelocanths Tetrapods Amphibians Amniotes Synapsids Reptiles Diapsids Anapsids Lizards & snakes Archosaurs Crocodiles & relatives Ornithodira Pterosaurs Dinosaurs Ornithischia Saurischia Lesothosaurus Armored dinosaurs (= Thyreophora) Stegosaurs Anklosaurs Ankylosaurids Nodosaurids
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Cerapods Ornithopods Iguanodontids Hadrosaurs NOVELTIES Who has them?
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