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fairgame midterm

fairgame midterm - fairgame o o IntroductoryLecture...

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fairgame 03/02/2009 00:35:00 Fairgame Sheet – Midterm Introductory Lecture o Types of psychology Experimental “hard” vs. applied “soft” o Brain-in-the-vat problem     Mind-brain problem     History and Research Methods o Major philosophical quandaries: mind-body dualism / monism o o free will vs. determinism: scientists assume that everything that happens has a cause, people  believe they freely decide their own behavior o Deductive vs. inductive methods Inductive – process of inferring a general principle from observations; begin w/ observations,  find pattern, induce general rule; going from specific to general  Deductive – logical process of deriving a conclusion from premises already accepted; being  w/ premises & facts, apply rules of logic, derive a conclusion; general to specific population: whole group you are interested in and hope to generalize in results sample: small group tested, representing large population
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Purpose of descriptive vs. inferential statistics o to understand o Inferential: statement about large population based on inference from a small sample o Inferential is easier but not always as accurate as descriptive o Qualities of the scientific method replicability of findings – must be able to get similar results from similar experiments parsimonious explanation – adhere to already known/proven facts, most simple explanation devaluation of anecdotal evidence – reports of isolated, one-time, or unusual  events/coincidences cannot be considered evidence o Naturalistic observations (definition): careful examination of what happens under more/less natural  conditions o condition, life history, unusual experiences, anything else relevant o Correlational studies – procedure in which investigators measure correlation btw 2 variables w/o  controlling either; as one thing increases, other decreases or as one think increases, so does other o causation tells us why o Experiment (definition): study in which investigator manipulates at least 1 variable while measure at 
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