03-Hormones I - TheTwoMajorCommunicationSystems

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Hormones The Two Major Communication Systems   The Nervous System and the Endocrine System Patterns of Hormone Release The Major Endocrine Organs of Mammals and Their Hormones Homeostasis and Negative Feedback  Pancreas Homeostasis and blood glucose  Central Regulation by Hypothalamus-Pituitary Anterior and Posterior Pituitary: Structure and function Thyroid Gland Regulation by hypothalamus/pituitary and negative feedback Adrenal Gland   Response to stress Gonadal Sex Hormones Hormones in Insect Development
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Animals have two systems of internal communication and  regulation: the nervous system and the endocrine system The nervous system conveys high-speed electrical signals  along specialized cells called neurons (will be discussed in a  few weeks) The endocrine system secretes hormones that coordinate  slower but longer-acting responses Communication Systems in the Body
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An animal hormone Is a chemical signal that is secreted into the circulatory  system and communicates regulatory messages within the  body. There are a variety of classes of these molecules that  include small peptides, proteins, glycoproteins,  steroids, or  amines Hormones may reach all parts of the body But only certain types of cells, the “target cells”, are  equipped to respond (have the appropriate receptors) The Endocrine System
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The Major Human Endocrine Glands Neurosecretory  Organ
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There are three basic patterns  of hormonal release Endocrine Release Neurohormonal Release Neuroendocrine Release
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effectors Response Simple endocrine pathway Glycogen breakdown, glucose release into blood Liver Blood vessel Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Endocrine cell Low blood glucose Receptor protein Stimulus Pathway Example In a simple endocrine pathway, the  endocrine cell releases the hormone directly  into the circulatory system in response to a  “challenge” or stimulus. In the example to  the right the “challenge” is low blood  glucose which stimulates enodcrine cells in  the pancreas to release the hormone  glucagon. Endocrine Pathway
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2010 for the course BSCI BSCI 110B taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '09 term at Vanderbilt.

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03-Hormones I - TheTwoMajorCommunicationSystems

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