10-Nervous System I

10-Nervous System I - Nervous System 1. Function of the...

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Unformatted text preview: Nervous System 1. Function of the Nervous System 2. Nervous Tissue Neurons Glia The I dealized Neuron 3. Signaling in the Nervous System How I ons Cross Membranes Resting Potentials, Graded Potential and Action Potentials 4. Mechanisms Resting Potential Graded Potentials Action Potentials Nervous System Function Fig. 48.3 Campbell The function of the nervous system is to receive (sensory input), process (integration) and rapidly transmit information directing the appropriate physiological or behavioral response (motor output) with a provision for modifying the response with experience (learning). All of these pr ocesses involve changes in the electr ical potential differ ence (voltage) acr oss the plasma membr ane that ar ise fr om the r egulated movement of ions acr oss the membr ane. Structure of Nervous Tissue: Neurons Approximately 50% of volume of the nervous tissue is made up of nerve cells (neurons) And Neuroglia: CNS: Astrocytes, Oligodendorcytes PNS: Schwann Cells The remaining 50% of nervous tissue is largely made up of glial cells (or neuroglia) which outnumber neurons 10 to 1. Neuroglia have a variety of support functions and are responsible for the formation of myelin . The I dealized Neuron Cell Body Dendrites Axon 1. Cell body nucleus, protein synthesis 2. Dendr ites surface for receiving information - input 3. Axon rapid transmission and, at the Axon Ter minal, signalling the next cell - output cell body Neurons : Structure, Organization, Communication = Direction of information flow What Factors Control I on Movement Across the Cell Membrane ? Any molecule, atom, or ion will tend to flow from higher concentration to a lower concentration (Simple Diffusion) Like charges repel and opposite charges attract Electr ochemical Gr adient : Combination of these two How Do I ons Cross the Cell Membrane? The lipid bilayer is generally impermeable to ions. Therefore the movement across membranes involves integral membrane proteins. There are two general types of these proteins: ATP-dependent pumps (movement against electrochemical gradient) I on Channels (movement with electrochemical gradient) Gated I on Channels Kandel, Schwatrz, Jessel Essentials of Neural Science Ligands Phosphorylatio n Voltage (Vm) Mechanical Membrane Potentials An unequal distribution of charge results in an electrical potential difference across the membrane (more negatively...
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2010 for the course BSCI BSCI 110B taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '09 term at Vanderbilt.

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10-Nervous System I - Nervous System 1. Function of the...

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