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23_EvolutioninPopulations2a3_forupload

# 23_EvolutioninPopulations2a3_forupload - The Evolution of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Evolution of Populations • Can be extended to more than two alleles • Two alleles - (p + q) 2 = 1 • Three alleles - (p + q + r) 2 = 1 • And X – linked alleles Extensions of the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem Hardy Weinberg for sex-linked genes females males AA Aa aa p 2 2pq q 2 A a p q Problem: If the allele frequency of a recessive disease is 0.02, what proportion of the population will have the disease? X a X a X a So the disease frequency among females is 4 per 10,000, the same as with an autosomal gene. Fifty times more frequent in males than in females. Genot ypes A 1 A 1 A 1 A 2 A 1 A 3 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 3 A 3 A 3 Genot ype Frequencies P 11 P 12 P 13 P 22 P 23 P 33 p(A 1 ) = fr equency(A 1 ) = P 11 + 0.5 P 12 + 0 .5 P 13 p(A 2 ) = fr equency(A 2 ) = P 22 + 0.5 P 12 + 0 .5 P 23 p(A 3 ) = fr equency(A 3 ) = P 33 + 0.5 P 13 + 0 .5 P 23 p(A i ) = fr equency(A i ) = P ii + 0 .5 Sum k j,i ° j (P ij ) Hardy Weinberg equilibrium for m ultiple alleles: For a gene with m ultiple alleles, labeled A 1 , A 2 , ... ,A k , with frequencies p 1 , p 2 , ... , p k , the expected HWP for the homozygote A 1 A 1 is (p 1 ) 2 , and, for the heterozygote A 1 A 2 is 2p 1 p 2 , etc. The total frequency of expected homozygotes under HWP is F = Σ p i 2 , and heterozygotes is H = 1 - F, termed the gene diversity index ....
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23_EvolutioninPopulations2a3_forupload - The Evolution of...

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