28_Speciation II_2010-1

28_Speciation II_2010-1 - Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter...

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Chapter 25 Phylogeny and Systematics
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Published by AAAS C. C. Davis et al., Science 315, 1812 (2007) Fig. 1. Phylogeny of Euphorbiaceae [including Rafflesiaceae (bold)] based on a temporally calibrated ML tree (see SOM text for details and fig
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Systematics is an analytical approach to understanding the diversity and relationships of organisms, both present-day and extinct Systematists use morphological, biochemical, and molecular comparisons to infer evolutionary Systematics
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LE 25-8 Species Panthera pardus Panthera Genus Family Felidae Carnivora Order Mammalia Class Phylum Chordata Kingdom Animalia Eukarya Domain It’s long been recognized that life seems to be organized in a hierarchical fashion Linnaeus introduced a system for grouping species in increasingly broad categories
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Evolutionary Trees or “Phylogenies” Two dimensional graph showing evolutionary relationship among a set of items can be organisms, genes, or sequences Each unit is defined by a distinct branch on the tree
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Phylogenetic Analysis Overview Insight into evolutionary relationships Inferring or estimating these evolutionary relationships shown as branches of a tree Length and nesting reflects degree of similarity between any two items
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Phylogenies can reveal convergent evolution, amazing adaptations
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Phylogenetics and Cladistics Clade = a set of descendants from a single ancestor ( Greek work for branch ) Three basic assumptions Any group of organisms are related by descent from a common ancestor There is a bifurcating pattern of cladogenesis Change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time
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28_Speciation II_2010-1 - Phylogeny and Systematics Chapter...

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