AP Biology Project

AP Biology Project - The same neurotransmitters can produce...

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The same neurotransmitters can produce different effects on different types of cells The action of neurotransmitters can be fast and local, or slow and diffuse One of the most common invertebrate and vertebrate neurotransmitters is acetylcholine. The main types of neurotransmitters are: Acetylcholine Biogenic amines Epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin Amino Acids GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid), glycine, glutamate, aspartate Neuropeptides: Substance P, Met-enkephalin (an endorphine) Some neurons also release gases, such as nitric oxide, to signal other cells.
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Evolution of the nervous system Ability of cells to respond to the environment has evolved over billions of years Nerve Nets : present in cnidarians are the simplest form of neuron organization Greater complexity of nervous systems evolved with Cephalization Cephalization = the clustering of sensory neurons to form a small brain and nerve cords Our nervous system has a very ancient history its basic cellular components and signaling mechanisms were present over 600 million years ago What has changed most during evolution of the most elaborate nervous systems is the number and complexity of the neural networks making up animal brains
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Basic Nervous Systems
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Vertebrate nervous systems have central and peripheral systems Central Nervous System (CNS) = brain and spinal chord Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) = nerves outside the brain & spinal chord
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The vertebrate central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) is the integrating link between the information coming from and going to the peripheral nervous system Central Canal of the spinal chord is continuous w/ the
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AP Biology Project - The same neurotransmitters can produce...

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