Chp_48_ppt - Chapter 48 The Nervous System Ashley Hoffman...

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Chapter 48 The Nervous System Ashley Hoffman Jennifer Onyewuenyi Angadh Reddy Nishrutha Manohwar
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Introduction   The  human  nervous  system  uses  processes  more  complex  than  a  computer.   It  is  made  up  of  many  living  neurons,  or  nerve  cells.   A  single  centimeter  of  the  human  brain  may  contain  over  50  million  neurons.
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Introduction (cont’d) The  nervous,  endocrine,  and  immune  systems  cooperate  to  regulate  internal  body  functions. Compared  to  the  endocrine  system,  the  nervous  system  can  integrate  vast  amounts  of information in a short period of time. This  is  because  neurons  are  specialized  in  the fast transmission of impulses, as quickly  as 150 m/sec.
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Nervous systems perform the three  overlapping functions of sensory input,  integration, and motor output. There are two systems: Central Nervous System  (Brain and spinal chord) and the peripheral  nervous system (all the other nerves) Sensory receptors  collect information (ex: the  light detecting cells in eyes) Integration, which is carried out in the central  nervous system, associates this  sensory input   with bodily responses. Next, in  motor output , the signals from the  integration center are passed onto  effector  cells , the cells that actually carry out the body’s  response to stimuli (ex: muscle and gland cells)
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Cell body  - contains the nucleus and other organelles Two fiberlike extensions: Dendrites  – receive incoming messages from other  Axons  – much longer than dendrites, they convey  outgoing messages from the neuron to other cells
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Axon hillock  – region where axon joins cell body Myelin sheath  – insulating layer that encloses axons Synaptic terminals  – relay signals from neuron to other cells by  releasing neurotransmitters Synapse  – site of contact b/w synaptic terminal and target cell Presynaptic cell  – transmitting cell;  postsynaptic cell  – target  cell
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The simplest type of nerve circuit regulates  reflex , or automatic response. A sensory receptor conveys information,  such as a change in stimuli, to a  sensory  neuron . The sensory neuron passes this on to a  motor neuron, which signals an effector  cell, a cell that carries out the response. Ex: When the doctor hits your kneecap with 
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Chp_48_ppt - Chapter 48 The Nervous System Ashley Hoffman...

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