Hormones.10.OAK - 0 NOTE These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class Some of the

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0 NOTE!! These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class. Some of the material in these files may be copyrighted, and it is not OK for you to share these files with anyone who is not a student in this class or to use them for any purpose other than to study for the exams of our class. Thanks, Carl Johnson
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Hormones . . . are chemical signals are secreted by endocrine cells are transmitted locally (autocrine or paracrine) or secreted into the circulatory system for long distance communication may reach all cells in the body, but only those cells with the appropriate receptors can respond can regulate lots of different responses (see C&R Table 45.1), but more slowly than the responses regulated by the nervous system 1
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Pheromones . . . are chemical signals that are released into the air and that communicate information from one individual to another and act through the olfactory system Examples: synchronization of menstruation among human females living together in dormitories (later lecture) mate attraction in arthropods: Female silkworm moth secretes pheromone from a gland on her abdomen Male silkworm moth has elaborate and very sensitive antennae to receive the scent 2
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Purves 42.1 3
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Pathway Example Stimulus Low blood glucose Receptor protein Pancreas secretes glucagon ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Liver Target effectors Response Pathway Example Stimulus Suckling Sensory neuron Hypothalamus/ posterior pituitary Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Posterior pituitary secretes oxytocin ( ) Target effectors Smooth muscle in breast Response Milk release Pathway Example Stimulus Hypothalamic neurohormone released in response to neural and hormonal signals Sensory neuron Hypothalamus secretes prolactin- releasing hormone ( ) Neurosecretory cell Blood vessel Anterior pituitary secretes prolactin ( ) Endocrine cell Blood vessel Target effectors Response Mammary glands Milk production (c) Simple neuroendocrine pathway (b) Simple neurohormone pathway (a) Simple endocrine pathway Hypothalamus Glycogen breakdown, glucose release into blood Endocrine pathway Neurohormone pathway Neuroendocrine pathway (Hormone cascade pathway) Increasing number of steps, leading to multiple levels at which the responses can be regulated. C&R 45.11 45.16 45.18 4
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Review : receptors are transmembrane (for hydrophilic hormones) or cytoplasmic (for hydrophobic hormones) Examples: Peptides Proteins Amines oxytocin LH, FSH GH glucagon insulin thyroxine epinephrine Examples: Steroids estrogen testosterone progesterone cortisol SECRETORY CELL Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD Signal receptor TARGET CELL Signal transduction pathway Cytoplasmic response Nuclear response NUCLEUS DNA OR SECRETORY CELL Hormone molecule VIA BLOOD TARGET CELL Signal receptor Signal transduction and response DNA mRNA NUCLEUS Synthesis of specific proteins (a) Receptor in plasma membrane (b) Receptor in cell nucleus C&R 45.5 5
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Review : one chemical signal, different potential responses Epinephrine: "fight or flight" response Different receptors
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This note was uploaded on 11/12/2010 for the course BSCI BSCI 110B taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '09 term at Vanderbilt.

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Hormones.10.OAK - 0 NOTE These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class Some of the

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