Signal Transduction.10.BB-1

Signal Transduction.10.BB-1 - 0 NOTE These files are...

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0 NOTE!! These files are provided for the sole purpose of assisting BSci 110 students to study for exams in the class. Some of the material in these files may be copyrighted, and it is not OK for you to share these files with anyone who is not a student in this class or to use them for any purpose other than to study for the exams of our class. Thanks, Carl Johnson
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Signal Transduction and Cell Communication Cells receive signals from: the physical environment (light, odors) and from other cells (mainly by chemical signals) Communication implies a sender and a receiver 1
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From last semester (Dr. Singleton’s section): 2
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Signal transduction pathways can regulate the activity of transcription factors as well as cytoplasmic metabolic pathways directly. 3
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Types of signaling Directly by gap junctions small molecules can pass readily between cells that are connected by gap junctions without crossing plasma membranes. Purves 15-16 ; channel is about 1.5 nm in diameter 4
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Types of signaling Indirect : autocrine–sending and receiving cells are the same paracrine–receiving cell is near the sender (e.g., nitric oxide, histamine, EGF {epidermal growth factor}) Purves 15.1 (Receptor is absent) 6
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Types of signaling Purves 15.1 Indirect : hormonal: hormones released by endocrine cells (e.g., insulin, adrenaline (=epinephrine), testosterone, cortisol); often travel through circulatory system. 7
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Types of signaling Indirect : synaptic : electrical signals stimulate the release of a neurotransmitter (e.g., acetylcholine (ACh), serotonin, epinephrine, glutamate) C&R 11.5 8
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Essential Concepts On and off: Phosphorylation: kinases and phosphatases (on Ser, Thr, Tyr) G-proteins: GTP binding; GTP hydrolysis; arrestins Other types of modifications are possible 9
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Three stages of cell signaling Binding of ligand triggers a conformational change in the receptor; this conformational change activates the receptor. EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Receptor Signal molecule Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Activation of cellular response Reception Transduction Response 1 2 3 C&R 11.6 10
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Step 1: Reception Types of receptors: 1. Cytoplasmic receptors (e.g., to steroid hormones such as cortisol, estrogen, testosterone) C&R 11.8 These signal molecules are hydrophobic and therefore can permeate the plasma membrane Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Receptor protein Plasma membrane Hormone- receptor complex DNA mRNA NUCLEUS CYTOPLASM New protein The steroid hormone testosterone passes through the plasma membrane. 1 Testosterone binds to a receptor protein in the cytoplasm, activating it. 2 The hormone- receptor complex enters the nucleus and binds to specific genes.
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