Psychology 1101 - Psychology 1101 Chapter 6 Increases the...

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Psychology 1101 Chapter 6 Increases the likelihood of behavior decreases the likelihood of behavior Stimulus is presented positive rein positive Stimulus is removed negative negative Operant – a behavior becomes associated with an environmental effect Reinforcement – the process by which a behavior is made more likely to occur Punishment – the process by which a behavior is made less likely to occur Paradigm Acquisition Behavior paired with consequence Behavior becomes more or less likely Extinction can occur if the consequence no longer follows the behavior (operant) Sometimes spontaneous recovery occurs Superstitious behavior One-trial learning Behavior paired with consequence Consequence unrelated to behavior itself, but behavior will persists
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Examples o Lucky socks o Chewing a pencil during test Shaping new behaviors How to learn desired behavior that is not emitted voluntarily Rewarding successive approximations to the desired behavior Schedules of Reinforcement Continuous – reinforcement schedule: reinforce IS obtained for every response Partial or Intermittent reinforcement schedules: reinforce is NOT obtained for every response o Interval schedules: reinforcements delivered based on time interval o Ratio schedules: reinforcements delivered based on number of responses o Fixed ratio or interval: based on specific number of responses or time interval o Variable ratio or interval: variable or average number of responses o Fixed Interval Schedule - Reinforcements presented at FIXED time periods provided the appropriate response is made. Ex. Predict the rat’s behavior if reinforcement (food pellet) offered every 2 minutes on the dot. o Variable Interval Schedule – behavior reinforced based on an AVERAGE time that has expired since the last reinforcement. Ex. Once in an hour we’re going to give out free ticket (radio station) o Fixed Ratio Schedule – Reinforcement delivered after a specific number of responses have been made. Ex. Every 5 times they receive a food pellet.
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o Variable Ratio Schedule – Reinforcements are presented on an AVERAGE number of responses. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/13/2010 for the course PSYCH 1101 taught by Professor Tomhutcheon during the Spring '10 term at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Psychology 1101 - Psychology 1101 Chapter 6 Increases the...

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