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Unformatted text preview: Psyc 1101 – D Exam 3 (Ch 8, 11, & 12) Notes Chapter 8: Cognition: Mental activity such as thinking or representing information. The field of cognitive psychology was originally based on the notions that the brain represents information and that the act of thinking – that is, cognition – is directly associated with manipulating these representations. There are 2 basic types of representations, analogical and symbolic , which usually correspond to images and words, respectively. They are useful in understanding how we think because they form the basis of human thought, intelligence, and the ability to solve everyday problems. Analogical Representation: A mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object; it is analogous to the object. They have some characteristics of (and are therefore analogous to) actual objects – include maps, which correspond to geographical layouts, and family trees, which depict relationships between relatives. Analogical Representations, such as a picture of a violin, have some characteristics of the objects they represent. Symbolic Representation: An abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea. They are usually words or ideas which are abstract and do not have relationships to physical qualities of objects in the world. For example, the word “violin” stands for a musical instrument. There are no correspondences between what a violin looks or sounds like and the letters or sounds that make up the word “violin”. Symbolic Representation, such as the word “violin”, are abstract and do not have relationships to the objects. When we think of images, the same brain areas are active when we view images. The mental image is not perfectly accurate; rather, it corresponds generally to the physical object it represents. By using mental images, u can answer questions about objects not in your presence, as when you visualize a lemon and describe its color. Manipulating mental images also allows you to think about your environment in novel and creative ways, helping you to solve problems. However, we can represent only a limited range of knowledge analogically. If something cannot be perceived wholly by our perceptual system, we cannot form a complete analogical representation of it. Maps are an interesting case. For example, most of us can pull up a visual image, a map, of Africa’s contours even if we have never seen the actual contours with our eyes. Mental maps therefore involve a mixture of analogical and symbolic representations. For example, when asked whether San Diego, California, or Reno, Nevada, is farther east, your symbolic knowledge probably informed you that California is father west than Nevada. So your conceptual mental map made you think that San Diego was west of Reno. But in a real map, which shows the location relative to uniform lines of longitude, shows that symbolic knowledge was inadequate in this case. The explanation for this is that Symbolic Representations can lead to was inadequate in this case....
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