Neural Control of Breathing

Neural Control of Breathing - regulation of breathing...

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Neural Control of Breathing
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Neural substrates Neural structures that are important for breathing are located in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. 4 important cranial nerves (IX, X, XI, XII) 22 spinal nerves (mostly cervical and thoracic) Diaphragm is innervated by C3-C5 Sensation from diaphragm povided by phrenic nerve and lower thoracic nerves
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Control of tidal breathing Structures located in medulla of brain stem Primary tasks are to generate rhythmic breathing pattern and to regulate blood gas (i.e., O 2 and CO 2 ) levels in arterial blood by adjusting respiration Can run breathing automatically (without input from higher centers) = central pattern generator for breathing Breathing pattern generated by the brainstem is strongly influenced by afferent information from many sources which is usually processed unconsciously. When this information reaches a level of awareness, then conscious
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Unformatted text preview: regulation of breathing occurs. Afferent information comes from chemo- and mechanoreceptors. Central chemoreceptors in medulla respond primarily to changes in amount of CO 2 in CSF. Peripheral chemoreceptors (located at bifurcation of common carotid arteries) are primary oxygen sensors, responding primarily to CO 2 levels in arterial blood. Both types of chemoreceptors act to stimulate changes in breathing by providing updates on the concentration of gases in the blood, which then stimulates the brain stem centers to make appropriate adjustments in breathing. Control of special breathing Defined as acts of breathing that are not performed for purposes of maintaining blood gases Controlled by higher centers (cortical and subcortical) that override or bypass lower (automatic) breathing centers...
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Neural Control of Breathing - regulation of breathing...

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