Levels of ObservationNeural- Pertains to the parts of the nervous system important to speech production and swallowing. Includes motor planning and execution as well as the afferent (sensory) information that influences the ongoing control of speech and swallowingMuscular- Concerned with influence of muscle forces on speech production and swallowingStructural- Deals with movements of the speech and swallowing apparatus and their relationship to one another and other structures. Some structural observations are apparent to the naked eye, while others require the use of special instrumentation because they are not visible or occur too quickly.Aeromechanical: Airstream is modified by structures of speech and swallowing apparatus the lie along various passageways.Acoustical -Pertains to generation of sounds that result as sounds is filtered by its passage through the speech apparatus, resulting in sound wavesSubsystems of speech production and swallowing: breathing, laryngeal
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