The Behavior of Ideal Gases
Any equation relating
V
,
P
,
T
and
n
is a gas law
gas law
.
Most gases at room
T
and
P
are ideal
ideal
; they follow
a simple set of gas laws.
Volume,
V
(mL)
0
100
200
300
400
500
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
1/Pressure, 1/
P
(atm
1
)
V
∝
1/P
so:
Volume,
V
(mL)
0
100
200
300
400
500
0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
Pressure,
P
(atm)
V = constant / P
or
PV = constant
or
P
1
V
1
= P
2
V
2
(
T
and
n
must be held constant)
Volume varies inversely with
pressure.
Boyle’s Law
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Boyle’s Law:
Pressurevolume relationship
For a given gas at the same kinetic energy (T):
Smaller volume
Æ
more collisions
Æ
increased
pressure
Charles’s Law
less obvious
(P and n must be held constant)

300
200
100
0
100
200
300
Temperature (°C)
Gas Volume (mL)
10
20
30
40
50
Hydrogen (H
2
)
Oxygen (O
2
)
Absolute zero
273.15°C
V
∝
T
or
= constant
or
=
V
1
V
2
T
1
T
2
V
T
All gases intersect
the
T
axis at the
same point.
V
is proportional to
T
V is
directly
proportional to absolute
absolute
T
Charles’s Law
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