Lec-39-climate

Lec-39-climate - Global Warming and Chemistry Observations of Climate Change Evaporation rainfall are increasing More of the rainfall is occurring

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1 Global Warming and Chemistry Observations of Climate Change • Evaporation & rainfall are increasing; More of the rainfall is occurring in downpours Corals are bleaching Glaciers are retreating Sea ice is shrinking Sea level is rising Wildfires are increasing Storm & flood damages are much larger
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2 Earth’s temperature • Average temperature of the Earth is 15°C (59°F) • Temperature of a nice spring or fall day Balance of heat gain from the Sun, heat being lost to the freezing cold of outer space, and heat being returned to the Earth by the atmosphere • If the Sun's heat is blocked, the Earth can freeze quickly If something keeps in the heat too much, Earth can heat up quickly Global Global T change change Blue points = annual avg. T ; red line = 5-year avg. T . Global Warming
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3 What cause the temperature of the atmosphere to go up? There are many possible mechanisms that can cause the warming of the atmosphere, for example: Natural variation – the climate becomes warmer by internal chaotic dynamics of the earth-atmosphere system (that is, no external influence). Solar activity – either direct increase of solar energy output or indirect “trigger” mechanisms due to solar activity (though nobody knows how) may cause the surface temperature to go up. Greenhouse effect – increasing “greenhouse” gases such as CO 2 , CH 4 , NO, CFC,…etc. (actually H 2 O is very efficient, too, but at present it is assumed to be in steady state). The greenhouse effect is presently thought to be the most likely (but not the only possible ) cause of the global warming and is the focus of our discussion here. CO 2 is continually produced and destroyed Removal by: ± photosynthesis ± washing from the atmosphere CO 2 (g) + 2 H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + HCO 3 - (aq) HCO 3 - (aq) + H 2 O( l ) H 3 O + (aq) + CO 3 2- (aq) Production by: ± combustion ± animal respiration . Global CO 2 levels are rising Atmospheric CO 2 and Global Warming
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4 CO 2 (Mauna Loa, HI) +19.3% from 1959 to 2004 Atmospheric CO 2 and Global Warming South Pole and Barrow, Alaska, show the same trend as Hawaii
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5 US Greenhouse Emissions CO2 83% CH4 9% N2O 6% HFCs, PFCs, SF6 2% US CO2 Emissions Fossil Fuel 97% Everything Else 3%
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6 US Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Electricity Generation 40% Transportation 32% Industrial 17% Residential 7% Commercial 4% How is the CO 2 increase connected to the global warming?
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Lec-39-climate - Global Warming and Chemistry Observations of Climate Change Evaporation rainfall are increasing More of the rainfall is occurring

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