Section_1_Nomenclature-1_post

Section_1_Nomenclature-1_post - Nomenclature Textbook...

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Sec. 1 - Nomenclature 1 Nomenclature Textbook sections to read: 2-3 to 2-5, 8-1, 11-1, 13-1, 17-1, 19-1, 21-1 Overview An overview of nomenclature is completed first to give the student the basic language of organic chemistry. Most organic text books are ordered by functional groups and the nomenclature of each functional group is presented at the beginning of each chapter. Because of this the reading for this section is dispersed throughout the text book. In this section you will learn to name alkane chains, functional groups and common “branches” (i.e. isopropyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl etc.). You will be able to name simple organic compounds (i.e. 3-hydroxy-2,3-dimethylpropanoic acid) and be able to identify 1 o , 2 o , 3 o carbons.
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Sec. 1 - Nomenclature 2 Introduction • In the middle of the nineteenth century, the structures of many organic compounds were unknown and were given names to illustrate their origins or their properties. Some compounds were named after friends and relatives. • The carboxylic acid HCO 2 H came from the distillation of red ants. This acid was given the common name formic acid from the Latin Formica, which means “ants” • muratic acid Æ hydrochloric acid • In the late nineteenth century a systematized organic nomenclature was created. The system developed is called the IUPAC system - International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Basic Nomenclature n-Alkanes are the Simplest Organic Compounds The straight-chain alkanes make up a family of hydrocarbons that have the general formula: H (CH 2 ) n HorC n H 2n+2 . Alkanes are sometimes called saturated hydrocarbons. This term means that the carbon skeleton is “saturated” with hydrogen (attached to the MAXIMUM number of hydrogens). In saturated hydrocarbons there are only single bonds: each carbon has a tetrahedral shape (sp 3 hybridized ).
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Sec. 1 - Nomenclature 3 methane CH 4 Tetrahedral methyl alcohol or wood alcohol Greek methy (wine) hyle (wood) ethane CH 3 -CH 3 C 2 H 6 Greek- aithein “to kindle or blaze” propane CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 C 3 H 8 Taken from Propionic acid Greek proto (first) and pion (fat) σ bonds free rotation stick structure 109.5 o C H H H H Same plane as page into page out of page Same plane as page C H C H H H H H C H C H H C H H H H H ball and stick
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Sec. 1 - Nomenclature 4 butane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 2 -CH 3 C 4 H 10 Taken from butyric acid odorous component of rancid butter Latin butyrum (butter) pentane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 3 -CH 3 C 5 H 12 Greek hexane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 4 -CH 3 C 6 H 14 Greek heptane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 5 -CH 3 C 7 H 16 Greek octane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 6 -CH 3 C 8 H 18 Greek nonane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 7 -CH 3 C 9 H 20 Latin decane CH 3 -(CH 2 ) 8 -CH 3 C 10 H 22 Greek each vertex and end is a carbon with the appropriate number of hydrogens Stick Structures 1 2 3 4
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Sec. 1 - Nomenclature 5 Know the First 10 Organic Chemistry 8 th Ed.
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Section_1_Nomenclature-1_post - Nomenclature Textbook...

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