Chapter6 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 6...

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Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 6 Organic Chemistry
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CARBON Of the millions of known compounds in our world, 95% have a single element in common – CARBON. What is so special about carbon?
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Carbon Smallest member, and only nonmetal, of Group 4 Forms 4 covalent bonds Forms single, double, and triple bonds Bonds to itself, forming rings
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The study of carbon-containing compounds and their chemistry is called organic chemistry. The properties of carbon-containing molecules determine the properties of the substance they compose.
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Organic vs. Inorganic Early 1800s Organic Came from living organisms Chemically fragile Unsuccessful synthesis…vital force? Inorganic Came from the earth Chemically durable Successfully synthesized by 19 th century chemists
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Urea Synthesized by Friedrich Wohler in 1828 Organic, but synthesized from an inorganic compound Subsequent death of vitalism The idea that life was somehow beyond physical laws was proved wrong. Living organisms must follow the physical laws of the universe.
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Organic Compounds
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Two Major Types of Organic Compounds Hydrocarbons Contain only carbon and hydrogen Functionalized Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons that contain additional atoms or groups of atoms Both groups can be further divided into subfamilies.
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The Hydrocarbon Family Alkanes Only single bonds Alkenes One or more double bonds Alkynes One or more triple bonds Aromatic Six-carbon rings
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Alkanes All carbon atoms connected by single bonds • General molecular formula: C n H 2n+2 Simplest is methane, CH 4 Each atom attains an octet; molecular geometry of methane is tetrahedral.
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Polarity of Hydrocarbons Carbon-hydrogen bonds are mostly nonpolar but any polarity would be symmetrically arranged about the central carbon atom(s). Methane’s tetrahedral geometry makes it
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course CHEM 91502 taught by Professor Auld,f during the Spring '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter6 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 6...

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