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Chapter12 - Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 12...

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Chemistry in Focus 3rd edition Tro Chapter 12 The Liquids and Solids Around Us: Especially Water
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No Gravity, No Spills Undisturbed by air and gravity, liquids take the shape of a sphere. Liquids and solids are held together by cohesive forces.
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Liquids and Solids
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Evaporation Each molecule within a liquid is attracted to its neighbors, but thermal energy keeps it moving in a random path. At the surface,
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Crystalline Solids Solids in which the arrangement of molecules or atoms is well-ordered; each molecule or atom in the crystalline structure. In solids, molecules move less allowing them to interact more.
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Melting and Boiling Thermal energy competes with to determine the phase of a substance. At the melting point thermal energy in a solid overcomes the forces of attraction between molecules. At the boiling point thermal energy in a liquid overcomes the forces of attraction between molecules.
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In the cases of both melting and boiling, no bonds within the molecules have been broken. Temperatures required to break chemical bonds are frequently MUCH higher. The strength of cohesive forces is related to the molecule’s structure.
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Forces That Hold Us Together The major cohesive forces in order of increasing strength are dispersion, dipole, and hydrogen bonding. If not for cohesive forces among molecules, all matter would be gaseous.
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Dispersion (London) Forces The weakest cohesive force Present among all atoms and molecules Result from instances when electrons are not distributed evenly in the molecule or atom
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For chemically similar elements or compounds, the magnitude of dispersion forces is generally proportional to the molar mass of the molecule or atom.
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Relative Boiling Points
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Dipole Forces Present in polar molecules that have permanent dipoles Molecules align such that positive ends of dipoles interact with the negative ends of neighboring dipoles.
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