Ch.3 PPT - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Chapter 3...

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1 The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Chapter 3 2 Biological Molecules Biological molecules consist primarily of -carbon bonded to carbon, or -carbon bonded to other molecules. Carbon can form up to 4 covalent bonds. Carbon may be bonded to functional groups with specific properties. 3
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2 4 Biological Molecules Isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula. -structural isomers -stereoisomers Chiral molecules are mirror-images of each other. 5 Biological Molecules 6 Biological Molecules Biological molecules are typically large molecules constructed from smaller subunits. Monomer : single subunit (mono = 1; -mer = unit) Polymer : many units (poly = many)
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3 7 Biological Molecules dehydration synthesis : formation of large molecules by the removal of water -monomers are joined to form polymers hydrolysis : breakdown of large molecules by the addition of water -polymers are broken down to monomers 8 Biological Molecules 9 Carbohydrates Molecules with a 1:2:1 ratio of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen -empirical formula: (CH 2 O) n -examples: sugars, starch, glucose C – H covalent bonds hold much energy Carbohydrates are good energy storage molecules.
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4 10 Carbohydrates Glucose -a monosaccharide – single sugar -contains 6 carbons -very important in energy storage -fructose is a structural isomer of glucose -galactose is a stereoisomer of glucose 11 Carbohydrates 12 Carbohydrates
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course CHEM 91502 taught by Professor Auld,f during the Spring '10 term at Virginia Tech.

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Ch.3 PPT - The Chemical Building Blocks of Life Chapter 3...

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