Exam 1 Outline

Exam 1 Outline - Exam 1 Outline 1 Chapter 1 The Science of...

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Exam 1 Outline 1) Chapter 1: The Science of Biology a) Properties of life b) Levels of organization i) Cellular level ii) Organismal level iii) Population level iv) Emergent properties c) The Nature of Science i) Deductive reasoning : uses general principles to make specific predictions ii) Inductive reasoning : uses specific observations to develop general conclusions iii) Hypothesis iv) Experiment (1) Test experiment vs. control experiment v) Reductionism : to break a complex process down to its simpler parts vi) Models vii)Theory (1) Body of interconnected concepts (2) Supported by much experimental evidence and scientific reasoning d) Charles Darwin i) Evolution by natural selection ii) Voyage of the Beagle iii) Post-Darwin evolution evidence (1) Fossil record (2) Mechanisms of heredity (3) Comparative anatomy (a) Homologous structures (i) Same evolutionary origin, but different structure and function (b)Analogous structures (i) Similar structure and function, but different evolutionary origin (4) Molecular evidence (a) Phylogenetic trees e) Unifying Themes in Biology i) Cell theory ii) Molecular base of inheritance iii) Structure and function iv) Evolutionary change v) Evolutionary conservation vi) Cells (1) Information processing systems
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vii)Emergent properties 2) Chapter 2: The Nature of Molecules a) Atomic Structure i) All matter is composed of atoms ii) Protons, neutrons, electrons iii) Oxidation vs. reduction iv) Valence electrons (1) Influence element’s chemical properties v) The Periodic Table (1) Octet rule (2) 90 naturally occurring elements (a) Macroelements: 12 elements are found in living organisms in substantial amounts (b)Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96.3% of human body weight vi) Chemical Bonds (1) Molecules (2) Compounds (3) Ionic bonds : formed by attraction of oppositely charged ions (4) Covalent bonds : sharing of two or more electrons (5) Electronegativity is an atom’s affinity for electrons (a) Dictate how electrons are distributed in covalent bonds (i) Nonpolar covalent bonds (equal sharing) (ii) Polar covalent bonds (unequal sharing) (6) Influenced by (a) Temperature (b)Concentration of reactants and products (c) Availability of a catalyst vii) Water Chemistry (1) Hydrogen bonds : most important property of water (a) Highly polar in a water molecule (b)Oxygen is partially negative and hydrogen is partially positive (2) Cohesion vs. adhesion (3) Properties of water (a) High specific heat (b)High heat of vaporization (c) Solid water is less dense than liquid (d)Water is a good solvent
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Exam 1 Outline - Exam 1 Outline 1 Chapter 1 The Science of...

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