Ch.10 - 1/11/10 Ch. 10: Sustaining Terrestrial...

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1/11/10 Ch. 10: Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity, The Ecosystem Approach Human Impacts o Land surface disturbed o Size and resource use o Pollution Value of Biodiversity o Intrinsic ethical decision o Monetary $ o Instrumental value to humans Use, nonuse (existence, aesthetic, bequest) Types of Forests o Old-growth forest : not seriously disturbed, hosts many species (22% of world’s forests) o Secondary-growth forest : results from natural secondary succession, fewer niches, smaller trees o Tree plantation : planted stands of a particular tree species Natural Capital of Forests (Figure 10-4) o Economic: fuel wood, lumber, paper, mining, recreation (provides jobs) o Ecological: energy flow, reduce soil erosion, purify water and air o Monetary estimate: $33.2 trillion Deforestation (Figure 10-7) o Extinction of species, regional climate change, release of carbon dioxide, acceleration of flooding o Degradation to natural capital Forest Management in U.S. o Forests cover more area than in 1920 less quality o Old-growth forests are being clear-cut Replaced with tree farms, low biodiversity o Forest Service : 1905, manage the lands for human use, present and future (logging, mining, recreation use) “Caring for the Land and Serving People” o National Park Service : regulations tighter (aren’t logged or mined), preservation is the goal Logging in U.S. National Forests (Figure 10-19) o Timber, ecological services, recreation, mix of these? o Fragmentation, destruction, degradation o Selective cutting- individuality o Clear cutting- entire forests o Strip cutting- portions
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Deforestation in Developing Countries o ½ the people in developing countries have a shortage of fuel wood and charcoal o Haiti- 98% of country is deforested o Solutions Alternatives: charcoal from spent sugarcane, wind energy, solar energy Community forests Solutions to Deforestation (Figure 10-12) o We need to emphasize Economic value of ecological services Harvesting trees no faster than they are replenished Protecting old-growth and vulnerable areas Reducing Demand for Harvest Trees
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This note was uploaded on 11/14/2010 for the course BIO 1105 at Virginia Tech.

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Ch.10 - 1/11/10 Ch. 10: Sustaining Terrestrial...

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