ChapterAssignment - Maddie Houck Chapter 18 A Definitions 1...

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Maddie Houck Chapter 18 A) Definitions 1.) Risk assessment : the scientific process of estimating how much harm a particular hazard can cause to human health or the environment 2.) Risk management : deciding whether or how to reduce a particular risk to a certain level and at what cost 3.) Nontransmissible disease : not caused by living organisms and does not spread from one person to another (ex. cardiovascular disorders, asthma, emphysema, and malnutrition) 4.) Transmissible disease : when an infection, virus, or parasite invades the body and multiplies in its cells and tissues and the body cannot mobilize its defenses fast enough to keep the pathogen from interfering with bodily functions 5.) Epidemic : a large-scale outbreak of an infectious disease in an area or country 6.) Pandemic : a global epidemic 7.) Toxic chemical : can cause temporary or permanent harm or death to humans or animals 8.) Hazardous chemical : can harm humans or other animals because it is flammable or explosive or because it can irritate or damage the skin or lungs, interfere with oxygen uptake, or induce allergic reactions 9.) Mutagens : chemicals or forms of radiation that cause or increase the frequency of mutations, or changes, in the DNA molecules found in cells 10.) Teratogens : chemicals that cause harm or birth defects to a fetus or embryo 11.) Carcinogens : chemicals or types of radiation that can cause or promote cancer- a disease in which malignant cells multiply uncontrollably and create tumors that can damage the body and often lead to death 12.) Metastasis : how many cancerous tumors spread, malignant cells break off from tumors and travel in body fluids to other parts of the body, there they start new tumors, making treatment much more difficult 13.) Neurotoxin : natural and synthetic chemicals in the environment that can harm the human nervous system 14.) Endocrine system : a complex network of glands that releases minute amounts of hormones into the bloodstream of humans and other vertebrate animals 15.) Hormonally active agents : HAAs, synthetic chemicals that can mimic hormones and that low-level exposure to these hormone mimics can disrupt the endocrine system 16.) Toxicology : the science tat examines the effects of harmful chemicals on humans, wildlife, and ecosystems
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B) Questions 1.) Two nontransmissable diseases are asthma and emphysema. 2.) Two transmissible diseases are pneumonia and flu. 3.) Three actions that can be used to reduce threats of these diseases are to reduce poverty, decrease malnutrition, improve drinking water quality, careful hand washing by all medical personnel (and the community in general), oral rehydration for diarrhea victims, and to immunize children against major viral diseases. 4.) Age structure affects the spread of infectious diseases because there are a
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ChapterAssignment - Maddie Houck Chapter 18 A Definitions 1...

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