lab 7 final - Lab 7: Soap Making & Biodiesel Fuels 1...

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Nicole Arcy, Ryan Bell, Jenny Orletski LB171L-Section 7 8 December, 2009 Professor: Dr. Davis Abstract: In this laboratory three main methods were used to test if Canola and Corn oils would indeed make the best biodiesel (in terms of energy output) due to the double bonds in the oils. The three methods used were FTIR, Viscosity testing, and Calorimetry. After conducting the methods it was found that the hypothesis put forth was incorrect. Coconut oil produced the best biodiesel in terms of energy output with 5.260 KJ/g (table 4). Canola oil produced the lowest energy output; however it might have been due to experimental error. In the process of testing many oils it was also found that biodiesel could be created from sources such as bacon oil. The bacon oil actually produced a biodiesel more efficient than commercial grade biodiesel. The only problem was that viscosity testing revealed that it solidifies at cold temperatures. Introduction: The purpose of this lab is to determine was type of oil makes the best biodiesel. It would be reasonable to hypothesize canola and corn oil would create the best biodiesel because of the increased amount of energies 2
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released due to double bonds breaking. The lab consists of making soap and biodiesel because the processes of making soap and biodiesel are extremely similar. Soap has been made throughout centuries; however, in the earlier centuries the process of making soap was chemically unclear. Soap was not used for personal hygiene until around the Roman era. The first patent for transparent soap was November 3, 1964. 5 Science has determined that saponification creates soap by converting triglycerides to fatty acid salts and glycerol. 3 Adding salt makes the soap hard. However, to separate the salt from the rest of the byproducts, NaCl is added which forces the soap to coagulate without dissolving in water. Alternative energy sources must be researched due to the world’s depletion of oil. “Negative environmental consequences of fossil fuels and concerns about petroleum supplies have spurred the search for renewable transportation bio fuels.” 2 The demand for oil will only increase as population increases. A possible alternative energy source being researched is biodiesel fuel which is produced from organic sources. It is considered an alternative energy source because when used in cars, it reduces the amount of carbon monoxide released as well as other air toxins. “Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced 12% by the production and combustion of ethanol and 41% by biodiesel.” 2 Biodiesel is typically created by a triglyceride reacting with an alcohol using hydroxide. “The most commonly used method is transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats.” 1 . Analysis shows that both corn grain ethanol and soybean diesel have a positive net energy balance, meaning they can be used for biodiesels also. 4
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lab 7 final - Lab 7: Soap Making & Biodiesel Fuels 1...

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