During the industrial revolution steam engines and

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Unformatted text preview: nery (187). During the Industrial Revolution, steam engines and water wheels animated a great number of new machines. Among the most important — machine tools that could produce large numbers of identical parts (187). Installation of power-driven machinery was complemented by establishment of a new setting for productive work — the factory, where hundreds and even thousands of workers performed tasks that large-scale production required. Consequently, most manufacturing workers no longer worked as self-employed artisans, and independent workers ceased to be the foundation of the economy. Industrialization had created a society of employees and impersonal managerial methods. Hierarchical command structures, written rules, strict job definitions, precise scheduling of work, and bureaucratic procedures became typical ways of organizing production (187). Many of the new industries that emerged in the 19th C gave further impetus to precisely scheduled, clock-regulated work patterns — especially evident in the operation of the railroad. The demands of railroads led to the establishment in 1883 of Standard Time and the division of the U.S. into four time zones (188-9). Industrialization resulted in rapid and sustained economic growth and a massive increas...
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