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Unformatted text preview: SOCIOLOGY 415: Technology and Society University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Fall 2010 Textbook: Volti, Rudi. 2009. Society and Technological Change. 6th edition. Worth Publishers Inc. REVIEW — CHAPTER 4: SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCE (58-74) Science does not always play the decisive role in the development of technology; conversely, on some occasions, scientific advance has depended on prior technological achievements. Consider the complex and shifting relationships between science and technology — how they differ, and how they have influenced each other (58). Read The Historical Separation of Science and Technology (58-59). Yet today, when the connection between science and technology is much stronger than in the past, a great deal of technological change takes place without substantial inputs from science. Studies conducted by: The Defense Department in the mid-1960s (Project Hindsight) — found that 92% of events (conducted after 1945) owed little to concurrent scientific research and relied almost entirely on established concepts and principles. A group of researchers in 2004-2006 (Project Hindsight Revisited) — noted that most of the relevant research had been done well before these projects were initiated, and very little basic research was done in order to address specific design issues. Researchers in England who examined winners of the Queen’s Award for Industry (given to British firms that distinguished themselves by initiating technologically innovative products and processes) — similarly found that very few of these innovations were directly connected to basic scientific research (59-60). However, another study, Technology in Retrospect and Critical Events in Science (TRACES) contradicted previously cited studies — determined that a nu...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 415 taught by Professor Swift,d during the Fall '08 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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