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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 15 November 2010 Most important… soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations. • Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online Fall 2010 Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) OCCUPATIONS AND PROFESSIONS PART IV SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Marginal Jobs Workers in marginal jobs may find themselves in peripheral parts of the occupational structure. CHAPTER Interaction of advanced industrial countries with the world’s developing countries also will play an important role in the balance of marginal versus good jobs. 14 Marginal Jobs …and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Chapter Outline… • What is a Marginal Job? • How Do Jobs Become Marginal? • Employers Who Marginalize Jobs • Unemployment Monday, 15 November 2010 What is a Marginal Job?… Considered undesirable— boring, low‐paid, intermittent, dead‐end, lack autonomy. Workers in marginal jobs— often hardworking, capable, unable to find better jobs. • Why are Some Workers Considered Marginal? • Marginal Workers and Social Class • The Future of Marginal Jobs What is a Marginal Job?… Four important norms commonly apply to jobs: 1. Job content should be legal. What is a Marginal Job? 2. Job should be institutionally regular. 3. Job should be relatively stable. 4. Job should provide adequate pay with sufficient hours of work every week to make a living. Marginal jobs depart significantly from one or more of these employment norms. (Note subjective evaluation involved in identifying marginal work—two people might disagree on whether a wage level is sufficient to provide an adequate level of living.) What is a Marginal Job?… ILLEGAL OR MORALLY SUSPECT OCCUPATIONS • Content of work—socially defined as improper, immoral, or illegal. • Deviant occupations—drug pushers, pimps, prostitutes, criminal behavior (production and distribution of illegal goods or services). • Definition of deviant occupation varies and may change with time and place: What is a Marginal Job?… UNREGULATED WORK • In industrialized countries—state regulation supposed to ensure “regular jobs” meet minimum standards for pay, working conditions, and safety. • Employer expected to withhold employees’ income and Social Security taxes, and pay taxes on its own payrolls. For example: During Prohibition legislators defined as deviant—people who produced and sold alcoholic beverages—illegal. Today, although regulated by federal and state law—legal. • In shadow economy—jobs not necessarily illegal, but institutionally irregular— income not reported; no official monitoring: health, safety, working conditions. • Some occupations (prostitution, paying professional poker)—legal in some geographic areas, but not in others. • Shadow economy—not accountable to state authorities or subject to economic measurement (e.g., maids work for cash, employers refuse to withhold taxes). • People might view these jobs as deviant if they regard them as a source of social ills. • Deviant jobs may be more lucrative than regular jobs. Or workers may be blocked from more legitimate economic opportunities. • Shadow economy—may use cash, goods, services, discounts, barter as medium of exchange. But one goal is to evade monetary costs of regulation. • Size of shadow economy unknown, but estimates run into the billions of dollars. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work What is a Marginal Job?… CONTINGENT WORK • Job instability and contingent employment—imply job carries no job security. • Employers avoid long‐term commitment to worker; use consultants, short‐term contracts, and temporary workers. • Some employers provide stable employment for those considered central to the workplace, but are unwilling to provide similar stability to other workers. • In 2005—5.7 million workers holding contingent jobs. Monday, 15 November 2010 What is a Marginal Job?… UNDEREMPLOYMENT • Inadequate work—jobs may be permanent but provide fewer hours of work than worker would like (involuntary part‐time employment) or pay very low wages. • Involuntary part‐time employment may occur in several ways: 1. Workers may have hours of work reduced. 2. When worker wants a full‐time job—can find only part‐time job. 3. When worker has greater qualifications or skills than job requires. • Many jobs—characterized by more than one dimension of marginality. • Full‐time contingent workers earned on average 81% of what full‐time workers earned in permanent positions. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… How Do Jobs Become Marginal? 1. Content of work—undesirable or “dirty” work likely to be delegated by more powerful occupational groups to less powerful groups. 2. New technology changes the job content, thus making workers’ skills obsolete. 3. Some employers create marginal jobs, regardless of job content. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) Some farm work, private household work, and some manufacturing and services jobs can be defined as marginal. (See Figure 14.1, Proportional Employment Unattractive Work— in Occupational Categories, 1910 and 2000, on p.331 of text.) One characteristic of these occupational groups (Fig. 14.1)—declined as proportion of labor force, increasingly marginalized for three related reasons: 1. Their jobs are generally considered unattractive. 2. They work in relatively small, non‐bureaucratized workplaces. 3. They have little occupational power. Nearly every job contains some dull or unpleasant tasks. More powerful occupations—often able to delegate to other occupations: Physicians delegate personal care tasks to.. Registered nurses who delegate patient baths, etc. to… Nursing assistants or orderlies. Others often perceive these jobs as unskilled, poorly‐paid—so share relatively low occupational prestige. But note—these are generalizations about the occupation, and it is not necessarily so that these individuals will have few skills and receive low pay. 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… Monday, 15 November 2010 How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) Small, Non‐Bureaucratized Workplaces— Low Occupational Power— Employers likely to be farm owners, small‐business owners, homeowners. May employ only one or a few workers. No commitment to provide permanent jobs or full‐time work. To earn enough to live on, each worker may need to work part‐time or part of the year for several employers. Thus every employer has even less incentive to improve job conditions. Even if large bureaucracy is employer (such as agribusiness corporation), marginal work may be treated differently from other work. For example, many farm workers—excluded from unemployment coverage, minimum wage laws. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… Workers with small, unbureaucratized employers—find collective organization difficult. Workers’ knowledge insufficiently specialized to claim sort of monopoly had by professionals or craft workers. Skills not in great demand; rarely own capital necessary for farm land/equipment, restaurant equipment cleaning equipment. Consequently, in poor position to improve their jobs. Due to poor working conditions, employers often claim inability to find workers to fill marginal jobs—offering low wages and job insecurity. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) Farm Laborers— Farm Laborers (continued) Permanent or casual employees of farm owners. Numbers of workers employed declining—attributed to increased use of machinery for planting, fertilizing, harvesting. Skills are learned on the job—no formal schooling. Involves heavy manual labor and exposure to harsh weather. Migrant farm worker—follows crops as they mature and works for succession of employers. Sharecropper—lives on land owned by another and paid partly with portion of harvest. Hired hands (including cowboys)—most “regular” farm labor jobs—o ten relatively permanent positions. Receive wages— sometimes part of pay is room and board. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… Recently, farm workers have been employed by large‐scale agribusiness firms. Three types of corporations dominate agricultural production: 1. Family farm/corporation—Often with thousands of acres under cultivation. 2. Publicly owned corporation—Primarily engaged in food processing. 3. Publicly owned conglomerate—Major operations are in non‐food industries. Most laws regulating pay and working conditions exempt farm workers. Only 3% of all farm, forestry, and fishing workers are represented by a union. How Do Jobs Become Marginal?… MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) MARGINAL OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS (CONTINUED) Marginal Service Workers Private Household Workers Three groups of service workers more likely to be marginal: 1. Personal service workers (porters, dry cleaners, beauticians, barbers). 2. Food service workers (cooks, dishwashers, waiters, waitresses). 3. Cleaning service workers (paid by cleaning companies, no private homes). In 2005, 1.4 million workers were paid hourly rates below federal minimum wage—most in services such as restaurants, personal services, and so forth. Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986—illegal for employers to hire aliens without work authorization. Some service workers—highly skilled; have difficulty limiting access to their occupations, especially if service can be mass‐produced (discount haircut chain). Less than ½% of U.S. labor force. Never employed by corporate employers. Occupational group dominated by women; only 3% are men. Some benefits are mandated, but employers often fail to comply (e.g., paying Social Security taxes). Unstable work—often inadequate in terms of hours worked and pay received. Relegated to least powerful members of society: women in general, women of lower‐class or minority origins in particular. (See Box 14.2, Household Workers, on p.335 of text). Organized labor has targeted service industries as a major site for organizing. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 15 November 2010 Employers Who Marginalize Jobs… • Dichotomize workers, jobs, firms, and industries into categories that are “more important” or “less important.” Employers Who Marginalize Jobs • Single employer can divide jobs into core and peripheral jobs—rewarding core job holders to minimize turnover; intermittently laying off peripheral workers or temporarily hiring through outside agency. • Firms classified similarly—Core firm employs permanent workforce; may also subcontract to peripheral client firms when there is too much work. • Industries can be divided into those most central to economy and those more peripheral. • Suggests symmetry (dual labor market): Preferred workers able to secure core jobs within core firms within core industries. Usually able‐bodied, well‐ educated white men aged 25 to 64. Remaining workers marginalized because they have highest probability of filling marginal jobs. Employers Who Marginalize Jobs… Employers Who Marginalize Jobs… BY INDUSTRY BY INDUSTRY (CONTINUED) • Modern industrialized economies—have certain core (essential) industries. • Multinational corporations may use fear of foreign competition—justify lower wages, poorer working conditions within industrialized countries. • Peripheral industries—less important—might have unstable product markets (seasonal, subject to sudden price fluctuations). Three additional characteristics associated with marginal jobs: 1. Competitiveness. 2. Low productivity. 3. Management orientation toward low‐wage, low‐skill production practices. • Competitive conditions can lead to more marginal jobs in two ways: 1. Creating low‐wage, unstable jobs; laying off workers in minor economic setbacks. 2. Exporting jobs to another region or country where workers accept lower wages. • Multinational corporations can produce products, create jobs in number of countries—may threaten workers with closure of North American plants and moving overseas. • Thus, workers or union representatives may agree to lower wages, poorer working conditions, to keep their jobs. Marginal job better than unemployment. • Less productive industries more likely to create marginal jobs. Work itself—labor intensive; makes little use of technology. Or productivity‐enhancing technology exists but firms lacked ability or willingness to invest in it. A combination of both effects may occur. Employers Who Marginalize Jobs… BY FIRM Employers Who Marginalize Jobs… BY EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT • Recently, firms more oriented to shrinking rather than to maintaining employment levels. • Large firms may hire temporary workers to fill in for sick or vacationing permanent core workers. • Firms can subcontract work to client firms. • Temporary workers work sporadically, in a variety of industries, often at various locations. • Client firms—smaller, more specialized firms—contract to perform work as needed when demand is high at larger, patron firms (e.g., mailing service). • Client firms tend to have weak market positions—dependent on level of demand and on larger firms. • Thus, creates marginal jobs—more stringent layoff policies than patron firms— often legally exempted from providing some fringe benefits. • Temporary agencies—intermediaries between workers and employers—many different types of jobs. (See Box 14.3, Working as a Temporary, on pp.340‐341 of text.) • “Temps” contract with agency—paid by agency; agency keeps portion of pay. Most agencies provide few benefits beyond Social Security coverage, some worker’s compensation coverage and, after completion of minimum number of work hours, unemployment compensation. • Considered marginal—their work is involuntarily intermittent; pay and hours of work substantially below those of conventional, permanent job. 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 15 November 2010 Unemployment… • Officially defined as the search for work by people who have no job. • In mid‐2000s, 4% to 6% overall unemployment rate, but rates much higher in some occupations and regions, and among some demographic and age groups. • Some unemployment—frictional unemployment—due to unavoidable delays between jobs (e.g., worker moves to new location). Unemployment • Chronic gap between number of jobs the economy provides and number of people seeking work—structural unemployment. • Gap between available work and people needing work widens in economic downturn—cyclical unemployment. • Published unemployment rates understate true number of people who would work if able to find employment. Many discouraged workers cease actively seeking employment due to absence of opportunities, or they are in school, ill, disabled, keeping house, or convinced they cannot get a job. Unemployment… Unemployment… OCCUPATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN UNEMPLOYMENT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOCIAL GROUPS • Unemployment—unequally distributed across social groups. • Unemployed minority workers = 2X rate for majority whites. • Special problem in industrial societies—youth (ages 16 to 19) unemployment is 2x to 3x as high as overall rate. Sales and office workers 4.2% Service workers 5.9% Construction laborers 6% Farm, fishing, forestry workers 13.4%% • Consequences (short‐ and long‐term) in terms of antisocial behavior, alienation, lost output, reduced social mobility. Professionals 1.7% Unemployment… Unemployment… LAYOFFS LAYOFFS (CONTINUED) • Affect many people at one time and in one place. Social Consequences of Layoffs • Older workers laid off—may have difficulty finding new employment. • More layoffs due to bankruptcies among small companies; downsizing and outsourcing by large companies. • Plants routinely closed in high wage areas and reopened in low wage areas. • Layoffs vary in duration: shorter for skilled workers in large firms; longer for less‐skilled occupations in smaller, more peripheral firms. • Indefinite layoff—often euphemism for permanent termination. Few laid‐ off workers can afford to wait indefinitely. • Loss of income, fringe benefits—often results in rapid deterioration of lifestyle (loss of home, delayed education, reduced medical care, reductions in food and recreation budgets). In combination—severe negative health consequences. • Higher unemployment rates—increases in family violence, family breakups, and divorce. • Tax revenues decrease when many workers are laid off—causing deterioration of community services (education, parks and recreation services, police protection, street repair). 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Unemployment… LAYOFFS (CONTINUED) Replacement Jobs? • When plants close in one part of the country and reopen in another part of the country—some workers regain employment by following jobs. • Many laid‐off workers do not have qualifications for the new jobs. • Workers may find wages greatly reduced—moving from unionized Northeast and Midwest into predominantly non‐unionized South and Southwest. • Export of jobs overseas to lower‐wage areas—has caused unemployment rates in industrialized nations to rise and stay at high levels. Monday, 15 November 2010 Unemployment… COPING WITH UNEMPLOYMENT • Limited set of resources available to unemployed workers. • Some receive unemployment compensation from state. • Only 78% of workers covered by unemployment insurance—payments expire after set period of time (generally 26 weeks). • Unemployment insurance laws vary among states. Those not covered typically include farm workers, personal service workers, part‐time workers, workers employed for less than set number of weeks, workers who quit jobs voluntarily, or were fired for cause. So, at any given time, only about 1 in 4 unemployed workers receives unemployment compensation. • Permanently laid‐off workers may also receive severance pay (a lump sum). • Workers may also receive some form of welfare (public aid), although generally unavailable until worker and family are completely destitute, is time limited, and contingent on willingness to accept work at sub‐minimum wages/conditions. Unemployment… Unemployment… COPING WITH UNEMPLOYMENT (CONTINUED) Legislative Controls • State unemployment insurance systems—procedures mandate that company’s unemployment insurance premiums reflect number of workers laid off in past. High premiums discourage from casually laying‐off workers. • Some states have enacted specific legislative measures to discourage layoffs. • Several states have enacted plant‐closing legislation—limits ability of companies to close plants without providing substantial advance warning, compensating workers, and sometimes compensating communities for their investments in company’s success. • Precedent for awarding claims to workers for unjust layoffs where such plant‐ closing legislation does not exist: What happened at Atari? At Atari’s home computer manufacturing plant in California—class action suit by 537 workers laid off in 1983—awarded (in 1984) four weeks’ pay plus legal fees on basis of little‐cited provision in state’s labor code requiring advance notice of termination of employment. Unemployment… “The Glaziers' (Local 1621) campaign to organize Sunnyvale‐based Atari's 3,000 employees in the early 1980s was one of the valley's most noted union drives. In 1982, the Glaziers announced that they had collected enough signature cards— from 30 percent of eligible employees, as required by law—to call an election. The company, which manufactures coin‐operated video games and home computers, fought back in full force. Management circulated an anti‐union petition, which supervisors pressured workers to sign, and began inviting production workers to unprecedented company‐sponsored parties, according to workers and Glaziers organizer Ed Jones. Jones also collected signed affidavits from workers who were threatened by supervisors because of their union support. The union lost some support and had to cancel its petition for election with the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), but the campaign continued.” Unemployment… “In February 1983, while the Glaziers were gearing up for another election bid, Atari announced that it was laying off 1,700 employees and relocating production to Taiwan and Hong Kong. Atari spokesperson Bruce Entin claimed that the decision to relocate was based solely on cost considerations and had no connection to the union drive. Ed Jones and pro‐union workers are convinced otherwise, according to interviews. Since the massive layoffs, the Glaziers have been unable to gain the required 30 percent of signatures from eligible workers on Atari's one remaining production line in the valley. Typically in Silicon Valley, employers such as Atari argue that unions are unsuccessful because working conditions are already favorable to workers, making unions unnecessary and anachronistic. In contrast, organizers claim that unions are greatly needed in what is a very unfavorable work climate but that the industry's anti‐union campaigns and its ability to relocate foil all attempts at organizing. “ Source: Cornford, Daniel, editor. Working People of California. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1995 1995. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft9x0nb6fg/ 7 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 15 November 2010 Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… Workers in marginal jobs more likely to have characteristics of—geographic isolation, low education, disability, recent job displacement. Also to be distinctive in terms of demographic characteristics—age, race, ethnicity, gender. Why are Some Workers Considered Marginal? GEOGRAPHIC ISOLATION • Occurs in rural areas, inner‐city ghettos—only unstable, low‐paid jobs in immediate vicinity. • Better jobs in other parts of same metropolitan area—unable to afford transportation costs. • Also occurs in small towns—only available jobs may be unstable or poorly paid. • People with limited geographic mobility—for example, married women (limited by husbands’ jobs). Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… EDUCATIONAL LEVEL Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… DISABLING CONDITIONS • Workers’ education, skills—highly correlated with annual earnings. • Earnings increase with level of education. • U.S. Census, 2006—Nearly 12% of American workers report they have some kind of disability. • Those with severe disability—difficulty finding work, especially full‐time work. In 2003, high school graduates earned average of $27,915. In 2003, worker with bachelor’s degree earned average of $51,206. In 2003, worker with professional degree earned average of $115,212. • May be disqualified from some jobs due to a specific disability. • Although there are many jobs disabled could do—not offered because employer has many able‐bodied applicants. • But, years of schooling not sufficient indicator of education—as many as 10% of high school graduates are functionally illiterate; as many as 44% of foreign‐born in U.S. may be functionally illiterate in English. Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… JOB DISPLACEMENT • Displaced workers defined as workers at least 20 years old who lost job because company closed or moved away; or insufficient work to do; or position/shift was abolished. • Bureau of Labor Statistics survey (2003‐2006)—found 3.8 million displaced workers who had worked fort employer for three or more years. About 70% were re‐employed at time of survey. (Just under half of displaced workers lost jobs—plant or company closings.) 30% of displaced workers—earning 20% less than previous job. 51% of displaced workers—earning as much or more on new jobs. HAND CONTROLS, CURB CUTS, AND LIGHT‐ WEIGHT CHAIRS DON’T HELP MUCH WHEN EMPLOYERS WON’T CONSIDER HIRING A DISABLED BUT FULLY ABLE WORKER. • Some disabled people forced to accept marginal work —no better job available. Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… AGE • Age tends to be correlated with skills, experience. So young, inexperienced workers most likely recruited for marginal jobs. • Legislators have proposed subminimum wage—wage lower than current minimum wage—way to increase number of jobs available to young people; would provide work experience, some on‐the‐job training. • Child labor laws limit types of work and hours of work for teenagers. • Elderly workers—experience might be considered obsolete, so hired for marginal jobs. (Some older workers respond to job loss by retirement.) • Firms that traditionally hire teenagers, now viewing rapidly growing elderly population as potential source of workers—but jobs may not be attractive to them —less likely to have job‐related medical insurance and pension coverage, and/or other benefits. 8 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… Monday, 15 November 2010 Why Are Some Workers Considered Marginal?… RACE AND ETHNICITY INTERACTING CHARACTERISTICS • Over‐representation of minority groups in marginal jobs. • Some employers use type of statistical discrimination in hiring for core jobs. • Discrimination directly affects minority workers—cultural division of labor to less desirable jobs. • To minimize time spent interviewing—employers hire according to their stereotype of appropriate worker for job. • Discrimination indirectly affects them—inferior school preparation; residential segregation, inner‐city isolation from attractive jobs in suburban ring. • Employers prefer to hire workers according to gender, race, education, and other easily verifiable characteristics of productive workers. • Immigrants with low levels of education or job skills—menial and marginal jobs. • When hiring for more peripheral jobs (e.g., cleaning staff)—women, minority workers, disabled people, immigrants, and others may be considered appropriate. • Immigrants with professional skills—shortly earn equal to native‐born workers. • Jobs with government or certain core industries may be limited to citizens; or licenses/credentials may be required from training schools within host country. • Such stereotypes—may become self‐fulfilling prophecies. Employers who expect little from their workers often find expectations fulfilled. Marginal Workers and Social Class… • Jobs and occupations—important indicators of social class. Marginal Workers and Social Class • Social scientists concerned—what the persistence or increase of marginal jobs will mean for the class structure of advanced industrialized societies. Two basic ideas: development of underclass, and shrinking middle class. • Underclass—social group unable to achieve social mobility due to lack of personal resources and opportunities—occupational inheritance of marginal jobs from generation to generation. • Shrinking middleclass—traditional middle‐class jobs becoming more unstable (reduced to part‐time or temporary; deskilled due to technological advances; outsourced to other countries). Middle class children may not be able to inherit parents’ class position. Mobility into middle class will become more difficult. The Future of Marginal Jobs… Important issue in assessing future of marginal jobs—marginality that results from the organization of employment. Two types of theories: 1. Dual labor market theory. 2. Internal labor market theory. The Future of Marginal Jobs DUAL LABOR MARKETS • Good jobs vs. bad jobs—In developing countries, formal vs. informal sectors; in industrialized countries, primary vs. secondary economic sectors or core vs. peripheral industries. • Productivity, profits—expected to grow in primary sectors, permitting substitution of more capital for labor. • More labor‐intensive secondary sectors (poorly paid, less secure) will absorb disproportional numbers of workers. 9 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 15 November 2010 The Future of Marginal Jobs… INTERNAL LABOR MARKETS • Decisions of employers crucial in determining relative proportion of good vs. bad jobs. • Even an employer in profitable core industry may offer two kinds of jobs—good jobs for workers with skills, marginal jobs for unskilled workers. • In economic downturns, workers holding peripheral jobs—laid off. Even if high turnover in marginal jobs, production process minimally affected. Quick Review • The International Factor: Beyond Outsourcing—Uncertain whether global competition and technology will lead to creation of more marginal jobs or creation of better jobs. • Most of world’s marginal jobs—in developing countries. Could better jobs be available to these people, increasing size of worldwide middle class, providing markets and economic stimulus for advanced industrial countries? (See Box 14.43, New Products and New Jobs from Serving the Poor, on p.349 in text.) Review… At this point, you should be able to: • Marginal jobs defined by—job content, job regularity, job stability, and adequacy of employment in some occupations (farm labor, service work, household work). 1. Identify four norms for classifying a job as marginal. • For other occupations—the industry, the firm, and nature of the labor contract— determine whether job is marginal. 2. Explain why some major occupational groups have working conditions that mark the jobs as marginal. • Workers most often hired for marginal jobs—distinctive in race, immigrant status, gender, birthplace, schooling, disability status, previous work history, and geographic location. 4. Identify three ways in which employers may create marginal jobs. • Many of characteristics associated with marginal work also associated with unemployment. 5. Identify the characteristics that are often associated with workers in marginal jobs. • If relative number of marginal jobs increases—middle class likely to shrink and underclass to grow. 6. Contrast the concepts of dual labor market and internal labor market, and define the term underclass. 3. Identify three forms of unemployment. • Interaction of advanced industrial countries with world’s developing countries— will play important role in balance of marginal vs. good jobs. Ch.14 Discussion How is it that an industry could be peripheral in one country and core in another country? Are there marginal jobs even in core industries? Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 10 ...
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