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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 18 October 2010 Most important…
soc 313 Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations.
• Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF
SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online
Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) INDUSTRIES AND TECHNOLOGIES PART III SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline…
• What are Services?
• Service Interaction • The Rise of the Service Society
• Types of Service Industries CHAPTER • Compensation in Services 10 • The Future of Service Work Services
…and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 18 October 2010 Services…
The great majority of the North American labor force already works in service jobs. What are Services? Most new jobs are being created in the service sector. What are Services?…
Members of labor force provide either goods or services to be sold.
Services—acts provided in return for payment.
Distinction between goods and services—reflects how close in time or space work is to consumption by user.
EXAMPLE 1: Manufacturing worker—presser in clothing factory.
Service worker—presser doing same job in dry‐cleaning establishment. EXAMPLE 2: Manufacturing task—worker in frozen‐food factory prepares and
freezes a casserole (a product) for later sale.
Service worker—restaurant cook who microwaves casserole for a seated customer (provides a service).
Service worker—supermarket cashier who rings up sale of casserole (a service). What are Services?…
CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES What are Services?…
Service workers may be self‐employed, employees in private enterprises, or employees of governments.
Customers may be individuals, organizations, or governments.
Payment for services:
• Some receive direct payment based on performance (sales commissions).
• Some receive payment for services they are ready
to provide during a certain period of time—even if no customers (restaurant cook and no diners).
• Some services are paid for but it is hoped they are never needed (emergency medical services, insurance industry, national military defense). What are Services?…
CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES (CONTINUED) Bound in Time and Place Bound in Time and Place (continued) • Most services are time‐bound—culturally defined times for providing services (electrical utilities, hospitals, police protection are offered 24 hrs./day). • Services are also time‐bound in sense that their production and consumption occur almost simultaneously. • Other services offered at times most convenient to customers or providers:
Traditional mealtimes (must have workers present). • Services cannot usually be stockpiled—as goods can be produced and stockpiled in a warehouse. Health clubs Open also at evenings, weekends, when members have leisure time. • Reinforces need to match workers’ schedules to customers’ convenience. Accountants Longer hours from workers as April 15 tax deadline approaches. • Many services also limited by place for convenience of their customers. Cities have multiple establishments performing same services for convenience of customers in different neighborhoods. Restaurants Youth camps Employ counselors only during summer.
Ski resorts Employ workers only during winter. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work What are Services?…
CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES (CONTINUED) Monday, 18 October 2010 What are Services?…
CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES (CONTINUED) Bound in Time and Place (continued) Low Productivity • Constraints of time and place for some services relaxed due to Internet and improved telecommunication. • Technology enhances service productivity in more limited way than with manufacturing jobs. • Leads to creation of new work sites—call centers, providing catalog and Internet sales, software consulting, various types of customer service that can be delivered even if service provider is far away from customer. • Derives partially from need to work with clients/customers individually. • Time—lets service industries take advantage of global time differences (when night‐time in U.S., day‐time in Asia). Leads to outsourcing. • Restaurants, for example—Difficulties in increasing productivity. Technology may reduce food preparation time, but waitperson still needed to bring dishes to diners’ tables.
• Besides low productivity, other factors contributing to lower compensation: • Most outsourced workers are paid much less than standard U.S. wage rates. What are Services?…
CHARACTERISTICS OF SERVICES (CONTINUED) 1. Lower levels of unionization.
2. Greater likelihood they work in small firms.
3. Greater probability their work is part‐time or seasonal. What are Services?
SOURCES OF THE DEMAND FOR SERVICES Insatiable Demand Demand for services can grow in several ways: • People can always consume more services, or more expensive versions of services now consumed. 1. New manufactured products—Manufacture of computers generated large number • Consumer with more disposable income will find increasingly more attractive services to purchase.
• Demand for agricultural and manufactured products is more limited; only so many television sets, etc., that a consumer will buy. of service jobs; wholesale and retail sales, peripheral equipment, and software; consulting, maintenance and repair, training. Similarly, new agricultural and manufacturing products generate new service jobs.
2. Paid production of services—A shift from unpaid production. Many healthcare workers provide medical services in hospitals, clinics, medical offices; many families purchase food preparation, child care, gardening, cleaning, and repair services. Vulnerable to business cycle.
3. Higher disposable income of consumers—Tourism, professional sports, theater, discretionary items purchased if budgets permit. Vulnerable to recessions. Service Interaction…
Successful interaction—employer, customer, and worker all meet their standards. Service Interaction Employer Standards
Several criteria for judging success of service interaction:
1. How many customers were served? (Larger numbers indicate higher productivity and efficiency.
2. How well were they served? 3. Did they spend as much money as the employer hoped?
4. Did the customers feel satisfied with this interaction?
5. Are they likely to be repeat customers? 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Service Interaction…
INTERACTION STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Monday, 18 October 2010 Service Interaction…
INTERACTION STANDARDS (CONTINUED) Customer Standards Worker Standards Several criteria for judging success of service interaction: Vary depending on nature of interaction: 1. Want to be treated as individuals.
2. Want to be treated quickly. PRESENT VOLUNTARILY
EXAMPLE 1: Restaurant—Although a waitperson may tolerate a certain amount of joking from a diner, he/she would not expect insulting language or physical assault from a customer. Expected customer role in restaurant also involves paying a tip. 3. Want to be treated courteously.
4. Want to be treated efficiently. In some service industries—length of interactions monitored; worker admonished if taking too long.
Some customers employ additional criteria—demeaning service worker, expecting subservience. Workers are prohibited from responding in angry tone to customer, and must react meekly and according to company procedures. Service Interaction… PRESENT INVOLUNTARILY
EXAMPLE 2: Ambulance driver—Might make allowances for unusual behavior among patients in EXAMPLE 3: great pain.
Police Officer—Would not expect a suspect to be pleased at being arrested, but officer expects respectful treatment in ordinary interactions with citizens. Because each of these three parties has different criteria for success of interaction, result may be a struggle for control of the interaction. There is a “game among people” that occurs in service work. Service Interaction…
THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS (CONTINUED) THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS
Management tries to control their employees’ interactions in three ways:
1. Establishing standards for employee conduct.
2. Training employees to understand how, from management’s perspective, the ideal interaction proceeds, and what to do if the interaction deviates from this norm.
3. Establishing controls to ensure conformity to the standards and practices of the company. Even service workers who are self‐employed often adhere to similar standards—customers expect a comparable level of service. Service Interaction…
THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS (CONTINUED) Training
• Employers’ expectations for performance—set forth in training sessions.
(See Box 10.1, Training for Fast Food and Insurance, on p.236 of text.)
• Routinization of interaction—For example, in fast food restaurants, the exact procedures for preparing each type of food are minutely detailed; the ways in which the service worker is to interact with the customer are spelled out.
• Standardization in training—ensures that sandwich tastes the same, and customer receives consistent service. Setting Standards
• May be formal or informal.
• May require workers to wear uniform—identifies occupation; may reflect subordinate status of worker (waitresses, barmaids).
• May mandate that employees wear name tags bearing only first names, forcing customers to address worker familiarly (associated with friendliness).
• May require certain rituals—Ask all customers same questions or present them same information, even if customers uninterested.
• Or required “script” may be means to increase amount of money customer spends. Service Interaction…
THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS (CONTINUED) Training (continued)
McDonald’s training programs are delivered in up to 40 languages, with the primary languages being Chinese (Simplified and Traditional), English (both International/Commonwealth and U.S.), French, German, Italian, Japanese, Portuguese and Spanish for the top markets. The training materials consist of two elements: core content which applies globally for maintaining consistent food quality and services worldwide, and locale‐specific content based on local menu items, food safety regulations and labor practices, etc. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Service Interaction…
THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS (CONTINUED) Monday, 18 October 2010 Service Interaction…
THE ROLE OF EMPLOYERS (CONTINUED) Routinization Social Control • Development of a standardized procedure for doing work. • Managers may monitor their service workers’ behavior to ensure that they are upholding company’s standards for interaction. • Reduces the interaction to its minimum elements—speeds up each transaction.
• Resulting interaction may be unsatisfying to customer due to impersonality.
• Workers trained to program and manage their emotional responses to customer. • Managers also check directly with customers inquiring about the adequacy of service or if certain areas require further attention. • “Face‐work”—Management of facial expression—by extension, worker’s emotional reactions. • Managers often set up systems for customers to report (positively or negatively) on the behavior of specific employees—thus taking on part of the manager’s monitoring task. • “Emotion work”—Managing one’s emotional responses in interactions with customers. (See Box 10.2, Emotion Work: Flight Attendants, on p.237 of text.) • Customer may not always be right—customer should always feel well cared for. Service Interaction…
THE WORKER’S PERSPECTIVE • Service worker needs to control interaction sufficiently to achieve smooth, efficient function of enterprise. Service Interaction…
THE WORKER’S PERSPECTIVE (CONTINUED) Manipulating the Interaction “Losing It” • Control the interaction as completely as possible—keeping to work schedule, making sale, increasing size of bill and therefore the size of a tip. • Occasionally a customer can be so offensive—worker will “lose it.” • Workers unsuccessful at manipulating interaction—may be caught between company policy and demands of clients.
• Manipulation makes the interaction less personally satisfying for both the workers and the customers.
• Many service workers prize regular customers
—have built personal relationship with them—
replaces struggle to control the relationship. • Managers may see this as worker error. Workers often point out that customer’s behavior has violated role expectation for a customer.
• Workers “lose it” due to what they perceive as customer’s indifference or hostility, or expectation of subservience.
• Others respond to routinized interaction by regarding the worker as little more than a machine. (Calling worker by job title “Waitress” is also depersonalizing). Service Interaction
THE WORKER’S PERSPECTIVE (CONTINUED) Burnout
• Chronic stress in a service job—result of interactions that are too frequent, too repetitive, or too upsetting.
• Most likely to occur when workers have little control over continuously stressful conditions.
• Result—Many leave their jobs and seek different type of work. Others may see refuge in another part of the company, in management positions, and so forth.
• Personal costs of turnover are always high for the worker. • Organizational devices—employee lounges, work groups, flex‐time, give employees alternatives to job stress.
• Number of workers who will be affected in future is likely to increase. The Rise of the Service Society 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work The Rise of the Service Society
By 2006, service industries employed almost 78% of the labor force. Services are projected to grow both in terms of: (i) the numbers of service workers, and (ii) the proportion of the labor force that delivers services. SECTORAL TRANSFORMATION
The shift from agricultural through manufacturing to service work. Shift proceeds in two ways:
1. Positions in agriculture, mining, manufacturing often go unfilled when workers retire; other jobs eliminated through reorganization and plant closings.
2. New jobs—disproportionately service jobs. Teenagers, young adults likely to enter service sector. Many new service jobs are knowledge‐based, found in fields such as telecommunications or transportation; others in personal services such as restaurants. Monday, 18 October 2010 The Rise of the Service Society
• Development of a service economy without a manufacturing base. Term comes from tripartite division of economy into primary (agricultural, extractive), secondary
(manufacturing), and tertiary (service) sectors.
• Rarely results from a deliberate employment policy. • Common aspect—self‐employment as petty entrepreneurs. Large cities of developing countries have cadres of self‐employed workers
—wiping windshields, selling flowers, newspapers, cigarettes. Street vendors offer cooked foods.
• In the developing world, tertiarization implies expansion of poorly paid service work so tenuous that it is sometimes referred to as casual or informal labor.
• In the U.S., marginal service employment —homeless people may scavenge scrap metal or recycle aluminum cans to eke out a living. Types of Service Industries…
• Provide knowledge‐based services for clients (individuals or firms). Types of Service Industries • Example of professional services—medical , legal, and counseling services. Not all workers in these industries are themselves professionals.
• Professional workers—often able to provide services to only one client at a time.
• Difficult to gauge in advance how much time each client will need—both professions and clients often express frustration with quality of their interactions.
• Health care—largest single industry in the U.S. (See Box. 10.4, Health Care Services in the United States, on p.244 of text.) Types of Service Industries… Types of Service Industries…
PRODUCER SERVICES BUSINESS SERVICES
• Assist individuals, firms, organization in carrying out their economic functions. • Help other industries create their products or services (electricity, gas, water, sanitation, and communication). • Examples—temporary help agencies, advertising, financial services, accounting, real estate, insurance, computer and data‐processing services. • Some producer services (municipal garbage collection, water treatment)—a provided by public sector and paid for with user fees and taxes. • Workplace automation is causing rapid change in many of these industries (insurance industry handles massive amounts of data). • Jobs in utilities—often well compensated; may require considerable skill with new technology and equipment.
• Development of complex utilities plants can lead to pressure for workers—even small errors on job can have major consequences. 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Types of Service Industries…
DISTRIBUTIVE SERVICES Monday, 18 October 2010 Types of Service Industries…
SOCIAL SERVICES • Geographic dispersion of goods. • Often financed by government—benefit society as a whole. • Distributive service—transportation, warehousing, retail marketing. • Subset of these services: military, police, prison workers, other law enforcement officers, firefighters, rescue squads, emergency response services. • Transportation services include airlines, passenger and freight railways, and taxi driving. (See Box 10.5, Bus Driver in Los Angeles: Lupita Perpez, on p.246 of text.) • Government employees—service workers in sense that they produce services for entire society.
• Important government services include national security and international affairs, justice, public order and safety, postal service, and human resource programs. • Additionally, about three million private‐sector workers employed in social services (child daycare services, residential care, private security). Types of Service Industries…
SOCIAL SERVICES (CONTINUED)
• Police work—major form of public employment in social services.
• Received increased training in recent decades along with continuing education.
• Police officers—considerable autonomy and discretion in how they do their work in the field. Results from work being spatially dispersed and difficult to supervise; also have training necessary to make quick judgments in a crisis. Types of Service Industries
• Produced primarily for a family or for individuals—include restaurants, leisure and hospitality, entertainment and performing arts, tourism, repair services, laundries, beauty salons, barber shops.
• Subset of personal services: private household workers who clean, cook, garden, and care for dependent family members.
• Defining characteristic—worker delivers service directly to final consumer. • Often harsh discipline for infractions of rules. • Some service jobs carry a stigma (barber, janitor). • As a consequence of mixed professional and non‐professional nature of police work—employees sought to increase power and prestige through professional associations and collective bargaining. Increasingly successful—status and rewards of police work have risen accordingly. • Janitorial work stereotyped as low‐status, dirty work—but janitor often plays important role: protecting buildings from illegal entry, fires, other hazards. • Janitors—free from direct supervision for most or all of the day, giving many a basis for taking pride in their work. Compensation in Services
• High‐paying service industries: Compensation in Services Includes transportation, communication, public utillities, wholesale trade, finance, insurance, real estate, professional and related services, and public administration. • Low‐paying service industries:
Includes retail trade, repair services, personal services, entertainment and recreation services.
(See Table 10.2, Average Hourly Earnings by Industry Sector, United States, 2006, on p.249 of text.) _____
Productivity—tends to be related to higher pay (telecommunications). Nature of Recipient—an issue in how much payment service provider can demand.
Nature of Payment—an issue in how well worker responds to customer or client. 7 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 18 October 2010 The Future of Service Work
• Service provision may change—due to greater application of electronic technology—services will continue to provide employment to majority of workers in advanced economies; probably in developing countries too. The Future of Service Work • In large urban areas—most people have many transitory encounters with service workers who provide many different types of service.
• Important part of everyday existence—whether these encounters are satisfying or unpleasant.
• Some concern in service sector regarding routinizing and controlling interactions, leading in some large enterprises (urban mass transit) to “people processing.” • Application of assembly‐line techniques to customers instead of to products. May leave consumers feeling that they have received no human attention. Review…
Workers worldwide—increasingly employed in service industries.
• Service work differs from goods production—service production is time‐bound. • Services cannot be stockpiled. • Production of service often occurs nearly simultaneously with consumption of Quick Review service.
• Services delivered by telecommunications—outsourcing offers one way to provide 24/7 customer service.
• Service work often characterized by low productivity. • Routinizing interactions between customer and service worker—makes encounters more impersonal and may lead to dissatisfaction by customer and to burnout among workers.
• Tertiarization in developing societies—represents growth of low‐paying service industries without a manufacturing base.
• Low‐paying services also grown in advanced industrial countries—but more likely to have high‐paying services in knowledge‐based fields. At this point, you should be able to: Ch.10 Discussion 1. Define the distinctive characteristics of services.
2. Identify six types of services.
3. Describe how the service society arose through the sectoral
transformation of the labor force and, in some developing countries, through tertiarization.
4. Identify factors that affect the level of compensation for service workers.
5. Explain the ways in which employers, customers, and workers each seek to control and manipulate the service interaction.
6. Summarize manipulation, “losing it,” and burnout as responses to service work. Think of a business or store that you patronize and that you would characterize as having good service.
What are the characteristics that lead you to describe the service as “good”? Are these characteristics widespread in the service field?
Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 8 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.
- Fall '10