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Unformatted text preview: SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Most important… soc 313 soc 313 Instructor: Instructor: QUINCY EDWARDS QUINCY EDWARDS • Do take ownership of your education in this class by completing all reading and writing assignments on time and participating in on‐line discussions. • Read each of the assigned textbook chapters before viewing the supplemental Powerpoint presentations. • Laulima is the University of Hawai‘i on‐line course management system. Links to the discussion board and other salient features are provided at: https://laulima.hawaii.edu/ SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF WORK (4TH Online Fall 2010 Instructor: Quincy Edwards ED.) INDUSTRIES AND TECHNOLOGIES PART III SOC 313: SURVEY OF SOCIOLOGY OF WORK Chapter Outline… • Postindustrial Society? • Occupations and Industries • Raw Materials: Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing • Mining • Construction CHAPTER • Manufacturing 8 • Three Key Manufacturing Industries From Field, Mine, and Factory • Global Competition and the New World Order …and other readings 1 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work From Field, Mine, and Factory… Monday, 04 October 2010 From Field, Mine, and Factory… Economic activity occurs in three principal sectors: Manufacturing… is highly mobile and can be easily moved around the world in the search for cheaper labor and more lenient environmental regulations. 1. EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES—in which a product is removed from the environment (agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining). 2. MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES—in which raw products are processed into more usable forms (vegetables canned or frozen, iron ore and coal used to make steel that is fabricated into girders and cables). Products manufactured may be far removed from origins as raw materials—cars, refrigerators, airplanes, computers. 3. SERVICE INDUSTRIES—include financial and accounting services, medicine, entertainment and recreation, education, government administration, and social welfare services. In general, services cannot be stockpiled, stored, or transported. From Field, Mine, and Factory 1. GOODS are transferable from buyer to buyer—possible to have long chains of intermediaries involved in their production. 2. SERVICES tend to be non‐transferable—must be delivered by producer directly to final consumer. Therefore, the production of services tends to be more geographically dispersed than the production of goods. Postindustrial Society? Automation and global movement of jobs has had less impact on production of services but this may be changing. Postindustrial Society? … a misnomer for today’s society. Current economy has not gone beyond being an industrial society. Economy based on highly productive industrial base—can produce more goods with fewer workers. Better characterized as an ADVANCED INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: Occupations and Industries • A small, highly productive extractive sector. • A highly productive manufacturing sector. • A growing labor‐intensive service sector. 2 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Occupations and Industries Various occupations may be involved in production of a specific good or service. Some are common to different industries: Raw Materials: Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing • All industries—clerical workers, managers. • Manufacturing industries—blue‐collar workers (direct producers of specific goods or services); professional and production workers in high‐tech work (design and manufacture of high‐tech products— computers, computer applications). • Service industries—fry cooks, waitresses, orderlies, janitors, garbage collectors, taxi drivers (directly engaged in providing services). Raw Materials: Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing… Oldest extractive industries—agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Still utilize the most traditional technologies and organizations of work. Raw Materials: Agriculture… Raw Materials: Agriculture… Late 20th C.—expanded use of machinery, fertilizers, improved varieties of grains and other crops. Increased productivity—fewer people needed to produce agricultural goods. Rising farm productivity—falling farm product prices. Large corporate farms contribute to displacement of family farms—driving down farm prices based on economies of scale. Raw Materials: Agriculture… Large corporate farms associated with significant environmental problems—huge tonnage of animal waste produced at single locations. RISING COSTS Farmers... FALLING PRICES Fuel prices Interest rates Costs of production Prices for farm commodities Average cost for growing bushel of corn: $2.42 Average price received for bushel of corn: $1.95 FOR EXAMPLE: 1998 ____ Some U.S. farmers attempting to maintain economic viability— produce specialty products (organically grown produce, meats, and other products for local farmers’ markets—not competing directly with larger farms’ products. In 1975—2.8 million U.S. farms. In 2005—almost 1/3 less. U.S. Department of Agriculture reports more than 60% of U.S. food supply produced by just 60,000 farms. 3 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Raw Materials: Agriculture… Raw Materials: Agriculture… DIFFICULTIES FACED BY FARMERS TODAY Unable to afford expensive new technology—falls further behind larger producers. Instability in agricultural prices. Prices for farm products highly dependent on size of harvest. (In good years, prices are low.) Dramatic swings in farm productivity due to… Federal Price Supports— Example: Use of growth hormones, antibiotics in animal feed, genetically engineered seeds. Annual variations in weather patterns. Insect infestations. Diseases. • Support prices for selected farm products, provides credit to farmers. • Establish a floor for farm commodity prices, ensuring farmer a minimum price for products. FARMER NEEDS INCOME TO PAY… Fixed costs Depreciation on buildings and equipment. Property taxes Interest on land and equipment loans. Takes on additional debt to continue farm production. Average more than 50% of total costs. Greater interest payments the following year. • Mainly benefited farmers with large acreage. • Recent reductions in agricultural price supports due to international trade agreements—limit subsidies, encourage market prices for commodities. Cycle ends when farmer can no longer obtain more credit or cannot survive on earned income. Must sell family farm, pay proceeds to creditors, and look for non‐agricultural employment. Raw Materials: Agriculture… Federal Price Supports (continued): • Farm incomes reduced by increased world competition in agricultural commodities. Raw Materials: Agriculture… Farm Laborers In the U.S., an additional three million people work as farm laborers at some time during the year. • Threat of foreclosure and poverty in rural areas—farm family members take jobs away from home. FARM LABORERS • Traditionally male jobs in rural areas—pay low wages. • Thus, U.S. agriculture operates in state of chronic crisis. Raw Materials: Agriculture… Farm Laborers (continued): Traditionally, farm workers were excluded from laws allowing workers to organize into unions—engage in collective bargaining. In 1960s, Cesar Chavez organized boycotts, hunger strikes, union organizing drives, workers’ cooperatives, and marches to highlight plight of the farm worker. “There’s a moment when the growers, politicians, corporations and sheriff’s deputies believe we want it more, stronger, and longer than they want to keep it from us. That’s the moment we win.” –Chavez. His efforts resulted in the United Farm Workers (UFW) . $27,500. Long‐term seasonal $8,000. Short‐term seasonal • Farm women—often secure higher status employment off the farm (clerical work). • Often long lines of unemployed workers waiting for any job openings that become available. AVERAGE ANNUAL PAY Full‐time $3,000. • Full‐time (250 or more days/yr.) = 500,000+ laborers. • Long‐term seasonal (2‐3 mos./yr.) = 500,000 laborers. • Short‐term seasonal workers = primarily students, housewives or non‐farm workers taking second job. Raw Materials: …Forestry… Forestry— • Like agriculture, requires a high degree of skill. • Skills often unrecognized and unrewarded—acquired informally during childhood and adolescence in rural areas. • In the logging industry—mechanization in harvesting of pulpwood has dramatically changed nature of skills needed (e.g., workers use a wood harvester to cut about three trees per minute). • Forestry—extractive industry—highly vulnerable to economic downturns and price fluctuations. 4 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Raw Materials: …and Fishing… Monday, 04 October 2010 Raw Materials: …and Fishing… The Ocean’s Limitless Bounty? Fishing— • Canada—largest exporter of fish in the world—yearly catch of two million tons, mostly exported. • U.S.—yearly catch of five million tons, most consumed domestically. • Japan—imports largest amount of fish and has largest catch in the world (seven million tons, or approximately 15% of world total). Many fisheries have been systematically over‐fished. • Deep‐sea fishing can involve thousands of baited hooks on lines stretching 80 miles across the ocean. • Trawlers fish with nets large enough to cover a small city. • In North America, East Coast cod and haddock fisheries, West Coast salmon fisheries—declined dramatically. Nonpoint source pollution, or polluted runoff, is the greatest threat to coastal waters. Note the darker, murky water flowing from the developed area at the lower right. • In coastal waters, environmental pollution reduces or renders unfit for consumption—shellfish and other species. To combat decline, need significant conservation measures—would entail multinational agreements— difficult to negotiate and enforce. Source: NOAA.gov Raw Materials: …and Fishing… The Ocean’s Limitless Bounty? (continued) Technology and organization of fishing varies from small shore boats at sea for a day to largest trawlers at sea for three weeks or longer. • Traditionally, independently‐owned boats—crew shares in catch. Favored over wage‐labor systems due to need for cooperation and teamwork to secure catch and to face dangers and challenges of sea. • Today, many fishing communities face chronic hardship due to declining catches. • Absentee ownership of boats and extension of wage‐ Raw Materials: …and Fishing Aquaculture (fish farming) — • Fish raised in ponds or fish ranches (large floating cages in the sea). • In 2005, 10 million tons of fish raised. • In China alone, nearly 5 million tons raised. • With improved technology, existing fishing ponds in China are projected to yield 50 million tons a year—almost half the current annual catch from the ocean. • The potential for expansion is significant. labor relationships into fishing may erode cooperative basis of work and working conditions of fishermen. Raw Materials: …and Fishing Is your prawn cocktail toxic? Read this and you may never want to eat one again By Alex Renton Last updated at 10:12 PM on 03rd October 2008 Southern Vietnam is hot and sticky at any time, but the humid air inside the Huong family's hut, perched on a prawn-pond dyke in the Mekong Delta, is almost unbearable. The single room is rank with chemicals: we cough and sneeze when we enter. There's an acrid dust all over the mud floor, which makes you worry for little Huong Thi Mai, a seven-year-old girl who is sitting on the bed near the door watching her parents work. From the UK Daily Mail… AQUACULTURE in Southern Vietnam Asian farmers are using an array of banned drugs to produce prawns for British consumption. I glance at her bare shins for signs of the skin infections that are common among prawn farm workers, but she looks OK. At least for now. Mr Huong is proud: 'This is a very modern prawn-farming business,' he says. And, with luck and four months' hard labour, it is going to make him and his family quite rich. After they've paid their debts, the Huongs hope to buy a moped and their first fridge. Thi Mai might go to a new school. 'We can have a better life,' says Mrs Huong. But until the tiger prawns are ready for harvest, and shipped off to Britain, Europe or America, the family must live here, keeping a 24-hour watch beside the sour-smelling pond. They've borrowed £4,000, a huge sum for this family, to invest in prawn larvae, feed and medicines - and they need to keep alert in case anyone tries to steal the growing prawns. Modernity, for Mr Huong, appears to be chiefly measured in chemicals. I count 13 different pots, jars and sacks of these in the hut, and he eagerly talks me through them. He's particularly keen on a compound called 'Super Star' - the Vietnamese print on the label says it 'intensifies the metabolism to help prawns grow fat'. He learnt about this additive on a course run by the Vietnamese government at a local fishery training centre. 'We're not allowed to use much - only ten bottles per crop,' he says. There are other glossy labels - most of them for products made in Thailand, the centre of the world's prawn-farming industry. Mr Huong mixes up feed in a basin while we talk. The basic feed, he says, is soya, broken rice and fish, and prawn parts. But in it goes a large dose of something called 'Amino-Pro'. 'It helps the prawns taste better,' he says.… Entire article online at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article‐1067963/Is‐prawn‐cocktail‐toxic‐‐Read‐want‐eat‐again.html 5 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Mining… Down in the Mine— • Miners—dangerous, demanding work. Certain standards of safety and efficiency. • Collective identity—built on shared group responsibility for Mining work below ground and geographically isolated work communities above ground. • Teams responsible for organizing their own activities below ground; resent external control. • Hazards faced—inadequate ventilation, poor illumination, dangerous gases, use of explosives, poorly supported roofs, unsafe tunnels, flooding, working with high‐voltage electrical equipment, chronic inhalation of dust. Mining… Mining Occupational Solidarity— Strip Mining— • Above ground, miners’ collective identity reinforced by isolated location of mining communities. • Subcultures (occupational communities)—provide members with a shared identity. • U.S. miners often a force in national politics. In coal strike of 1902‐3, President Theodore Roosevelt threatened nationalization (eliminating owners’ profits) unless owners and workers bargained collectively—first instance of federal government taking neutral stand between capital and labor. • In economic downturns—miners often revert to rural and agricultural pursuits (gardening, hunting, producing eggs and butter for local markets). In recent years, coal mining industry has shifted westward from Appalachia toward the Rocky Mountains. In the West—thicker coal seams, closer to the surface. Result—labor‐intensive deep mining technologies replaced by more capital‐intensive strip‐mining technologies (long used for mining metals). Improvements in technology—increased output, but reduced employment. Mining Source: Hooper Museum, Canada Strip Mining Construction In strip mining, overlying strata are removed and the exposed coal seam is removed. 6 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Construction… Pride in Skilled Work— Monday, 04 October 2010 Construction… Pride in Skilled Work (continued) Construction is difficult to supervise due to its being spatially dispersed and often requires significant judgment. Union construction workers generally more qualified than non‐ union workers. Construction workers not closely supervised. Unions work with building contractors and state governments to design apprenticeship programs that train craftsmen who are highly skilled in all aspects of a trade. Work inspected by employer or government building code inspector after completion. Skill and autonomy give construction workers a sense of power and pride in their work. Craft unions also run hiring halls—contractors can hire large numbers of skilled workers on relatively short notice, thus reducing costs of recruiting, screening, and supervising workers. Construction Non‐union Workers— • On average, less productive, but do an increasing share of construction work. • Often, price competition is more important than quality. • Union construction workers responded by making wage Manufacturing concessions, stressing their ability to produce high‐quality work on schedule—important factors in contractors’ decision‐making. • Demand for construction workers can vary dramatically between areas. Long‐term employment outlook—relatively stable. • Women are increasingly gaining entrance into this previously all‐ male field. (Refer to Box 8.2 on p. 191 of text.) Manufacturing… CRAFT WORKERS— In 2000, U.S. census classified over 15 million workers as skilled craft workers. Craft Apprenticeships—About 250,000 U.S. workers enrolled in apprenticeship programs at any given time. • Most programs administered jointly by company and craft union. • Apprentices receive about half pay during years in program. • Depending on trade—spend 100 to 800 hours/year in classroom education for two to four years. Remainder of time spent on job working under supervision of senior members of their craft. • Craft workers generally have more security against layoffs. Manufacturing… CRAFT WORKERS (CONTINUED) Exclusionary Practices— In the past, women and minorities—strongly discriminated against in skilled trades. In recent years, most exclusionary practices by employers and efforts by craft unions (to protect jobs of their predominantly white male members) have been greatly reduced. Strong occupational segregation of women out of skilled trades continues due: • Different socialization of men and women. • Continuing discrimination. • Lack of informal job contacts in skilled trades for female workers. 7 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Manufacturing… Monday, 04 October 2010 Manufacturing… MACHINE OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS In 2005, 14 million U.S. workers employed as machine operators and assemblers. Considered semiskilled—requiring less than two weeks of training. MACHINE OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS (CONTINUED) Repetitive Work— • Many semiskilled jobs—on mechanically paced lines. MACHINE OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS Largest group of machine operators (7 million) and assemblers operates stationary machines. Largest subgroup works in textiles and apparel. Includes punching and stamping machine operators, lathe operators, molding and casting machine operators, assembly‐line welders, printing machine operators, laundry and dry cleaning machine operators. Second largest group (5 million plus) operates transportation equipment. Includes 3 million truck drivers, as well as bus drivers, forklift drivers, other mobile equipment operators. Third largest group (just under 2 million) . Includes assemblers, testers, graders. These do hand assembly and sorting that does not require regular use of machinery. Manufacturing… MACHINE OPERATORS AND ASSEMBLERS (CONTINUED) Working Ahead— Semiskilled workers devise creative ways to relieve boredom: 1. Working up the line—moving ahead to work on parts before they arrive at worker’s station in order to secure a brief break later. 2. Doubling up —when one worker temporarily takes on two jobs while a second worker takes a break. Assembly line work in many industries is undergoing significant change due to automation. • Requires high degree of surface mental attention without corresponding mental absorption. • Repetitious work (especially if time pressured)—can be stressful, lead to mental distress and breakdown. • Workers often stressed if assembly line or production quota pushes them too fast to do quality work—consequently demoralized. Manufacturing… UNSKILLED LABOR • Classification includes laborers, materials handlers, equipment cleaners, and helpers, stock handlers, garbage collectors, hand packagers, machine feeders and offbearers. • Some unskilled work (garbage collection) is relatively autonomous and not closely supervised. • Most unskilled work is closely supervised—involves cleaning, loading, unloading, or preparing for some more complicated step in manufacturing. • Close monitoring—additional negative factor—undermines whatever autonomous motivation workers have. Manufacturing… UNSKILLED LABOR (CONTINUED) “No Experience Needed”— • Most laboring jobs require minimum training (if any). • Much of work is physically demanding, often in harsh physical conditions. Career Mobility— • Many workers aspired, or had aspired, to professional, semiprofessional, or white‐collar occupations (nursing, teaching, secretarial work). • Reduced aspirations are common response to problems that plague unskilled workers. Three Key Manufacturing Industries 8 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Three Key Manufacturing Industries… AUTOMOBILES • Key manufacturing industry since mid‐20th C. • Worldwide—20 million workers. • Production of auto components and subassemblies—one of most globally dispersed networks of any industry. • Market for cars in industrialized nations—saturated. Monday, 04 October 2010 Three Key Manufacturing Industries… AUTOMOBILES (CONTINUED) Increased World Competition— • U.S. auto manufacturers—increased competition from Japan, Korea, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Latin America. • In 1960, U.S. produced over 50% of autos in world. By 2000, produced less than 25%. • Decline due to American preference for smaller, better engineered, and more fuel‐efficient autos. • Japan exports 4 million more cars than it imports. • U.S. imports 3 million more cars than it exports. Three Key Manufacturing Industries… AUTOMOBILES (CONTINUED) Increased World Competition (continued)— Reasons for U.S. decline in auto market: • U.S. management slow to respond to market changes—specializing in higher‐priced cars and light trucks with greater profit margins. • U.S. manufacturing technology and work practices failed to respond to Japanese challenge. Americans less efficient than Japanese counterparts. • U.S. auto industry—higher rates of layoffs, turnovers, and absenteeism of any major industry. • Japanese automakers utilize more efficient group production techniques. Three Key Manufacturing Industries… STEEL • Not heavily involved in international trade. Three Key Manufacturing Industries… AUTOMOBILES (CONTINUED) Increased World Competition (continued)— • In 1990s, Japanese automakers started opening assembly plants in North America—Fremont, CA; Smyrna, TN; also Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana, Michigan. • U.S. automakers—learned innovative production strategies from these plants (e.g., at California plant, workers have right to stop assembly line if problems arise—something strictly forbidden in traditional U.S. manufacturing facilities). • Job redesign: Contract between Buick and UAW stipulates “pay‐for‐ knowledge” plan—workers compensated according to number of jobs for which they are qualified instead of on basis of their current job. Three Key Manufacturing Industries… STEEL (CONTINUED) Outdated Equipment— VACANT STEEL MILL (PITTSBURGH) • Costs of transportation—steel is generally produced near area to be used. • Diminishing market for U.S. steel. • Production is strongly vertically integrated—closely linked to mining of iron • Lack of investment in new technology—operates with outdated technology ore and production of coke. • Production of these raw components, production of steel, and production of finished steel products often occur at nearby sites. • Thus, difficult to subdivide process of making steel and retain selective activities in older locations. and equipment. • Competition from German and Japanese steel industries—new capital and technologies, rebuilt from ground up since WWII. • U.S. has since updated technology—but unable to regain competitive advantage against Japan who benefits from greater use of automation at all stages of production. (For World’s 10 Leading Steel Producers, refer to Table 8.1 on p. 198 of text.) 9 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Three Key Manufacturing Industries… STEEL (CONTINUED) TEXTILES Specialty Steel Products— • Textile and apparel manufacturing industry—employs 25 million • Productive and profitable mini‐mills turn scrap steel into basic steel products (concrete reinforcing bars, light construction products). workers worldwide. • U.S. is largest producer of synthetic fibers in world—25% share of • Capturing significant share of domestic market. • Women in steel industry now work alongside men as peers—report less sexual harassment than women working in traditional female occupations (e.g., clerical where majority of female workers have male supervisors—subordination encourages sexual harassment). • Even though gender barrier broken in steel industry as a whole, gender‐based occupational segregation remains a problem: 20% females employed as janitors Three Key Manufacturing Industries… 2% males – as janitors Three Key Manufacturing Industries… production. (Dropped from 32% share in 1970.) • Growth in textile employment—Third World nations (Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka) with cheaper labor costs. Also in industrializing nations (China, Korea). • Employment shares also captured by European competitors—technologically advanced. Three Key Manufacturing Industries… TEXTILES (CONTINUED) Mill Workers— • Only small portion of textile and apparel manufacturing requires skilled labor. • Unskilled nature of work greatly facilitated movement of industries to less industrialized countries. • Textile industry—one of the least unionized American manufacturing industries. • Result of declining share of world market in recent years—U.S. workers experienced layoffs and permanent job losses. • Employment losses due to importation of less costly foreign‐made apparel; export of jobs by U.S. textile and apparel companies to areas with cheaper labor. TEXTILES (CONTINUED) Sweatshops Return— LOS ANGELES SWEATSHOP • Conditions—long hours, no fringe benefits, harsh and unsafe working environments, use of child labor—resulting from increased competitive pressures. • Today, sweatshops on West Coast—employ large numbers of Asian and Latin American immigrants. • Students have organized into group—United Students against Sweatshops— to protest conditions under which these workers labor. Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME • U.S. manufacturing firms responded inadequately to heightened competition. Global Competition and the New World Order • Pursued three main strategies: 1. Exporting jobs overseas in search of cheaper labor. 2. Attempting to drive down wages at home. 3. Manipulating balance sheets and profit margins through paper entrepreneurialism. 10 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) • Strategies rest on increased worldwide mobility of capital by telecommunications and jet transport. • Capital is more mobile than labor—leaves U.S. in search of cheaper labor costs and less restrictive environmental regulations. • Dual strategy of exporting jobs and reducing wages at home secured profits for some firms—but costly to U.S. economy as a whole. Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) Plant Closings— • In 1979, General Motors employed 600,000 workers in North America—now employs only 125,000. • In 2005, General Motors closed four assembly plants in U.S., and opened new plants overseas. • Plant closings cost workers their livelihoods; communities and states, their tax revenues; increased social welfare expenses. Monday, 04 October 2010 Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) Financial Shell Games— • Some U.S. manufacturers—hollow corporations, subtract production outside U.S. rather than investing in technological innovation and job redesign at home. • Many goods perceived as “American made” are actually made in foreign nations, with little more than packaging and labeling done by U.S. company. Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) Externalization— • Large companies pay only part of total costs to change locations. • Other costs externalized—paid by taxpayers or individuals. • Costs include tax write‐offs negotiated by companies with new localities in which they locate, accelerated depreciation allowances, and utility discounts. • These costs reduce local revenues. Local services then are curtailed or other taxes increased (personal property taxes, sales taxes). • Creates additional difficulties for communities trying to attract and retain (Refer to Box 8.4, Arguments for and against Plant Closing Legislation, on p.201 of text.) skilled labor and professional workers—underfunding of social services (educations, parks, police). Global Competition and New World Order… Global Competition and New World Order… THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) Downsizing and Flexibility— • Downsizing– key corporate strategy to adjust to increased competition. • In 2000s, increasingly common—by downsizing core employment and subcontracting many functions, corporations expect to cut costs through increased flexibility in matching their resources to market needs. THE WRONG POLICIES AT THE WRONG TIME (CONTINUED) Declining Middle— • Traditionally, in manufacturing and construction—wages, middle range of income. Created prosperous working class that was bulwark of middle‐class society. • Today, real wages in these jobs are stagnant or declining. • Families have compensated for stagnant earning by increasing their hours of work for both husbands and wives; unmarried individuals have fared less well. • What is good for large corporations in global economy—disastrous for local and national economies. 11 SOC 313: Survey of Sociology of Work Monday, 04 October 2010 Review… Advanced industrial societies include industries classified: extractive, manufacturing, and service sectors. • Productivity in extractive industries increased to extent that only relatively small Quick Review part of labor force is still employed in this sector. • Decline in manufacturing jobs based on rising productivity, renewed world competition, movement of U.S. corporations overseas—cheaper labor, and more lenient safety, health and environmental regulations. • In manufacturing—some jobs highly skilled; some boring and repetitive. • In advanced industrial economies—employment growth occurring mainly in service sector. May foretell an increasingly unequal society as middle‐level positions in manufacturing decline, and replaced by lower‐paying service jobs. • To keep manufacturing jobs in U.S.—investments in technology and worker training can improve productivity and competitiveness. At this point, you should be able to: 1. Define extractive, mining, and manufacturing, and service industries, and to explain the difference between occupation and industry in this context. 2. Distinguish among skilled, semi‐skilled, and unskilled labor, and to identify the terms working‐class culture and occupational communities. 3. Explain three problems that face each of the following groups: farmers, fishery workers, miners, and manufacturing workers. 4. Describe current conditions that affect work in automobiles, steel, textiles, and chemicals. 5. Identify policy options that would affect the future health of North American manufacturing industries. Ch.8 Discussion Identify three policies that you believe would both increase the competitiveness of North American manufactured goods in world markets and increase employment opportunities for North American workers. Rank order these three policies by their probable impact and defend your ranking. Proceed to discussion link at Laulima and engage! 6. Describe the impact of industrial shift on the “declining middle.” 12 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/15/2010 for the course SOC 313 taught by Professor Edwards during the Fall '10 term at University of Hawaii, Manoa.

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